A critique of the versailles peace conference mao zedong

How did the Treaty of Versailles affect China?

Chinese students protest the Treaty of Versailles (the May Fourth Incident), 1919. The Qing Dynasty was overthrown in 1911 and the Republic of China was instated in its place, ending thousands of years of imperial rule in the country and generating a host of new streams of intellectual and political thought.

When did the Versailles Peace Conference begin?

The Versailles Peace Conference began on January 18, 1919. Chief delegate and Foreign Minister Lu Cheng-hsiang, who had signed one of the treaties resulting from the Twenty-one Demands, headed the Chinese delegation.

Is there a complete works of Mao Zedong?

A fifth volume, which brought the timeline up to 1957, was briefly issued during the leadership of Hua Guofeng, but subsequently withdrawn from circulation for its perceived ideological errors. There has never been an official “Complete Works of Mao Zedong” collecting all his known publications.

How to protest against the Treaty of Versailles?

1. Opposition to granting Shantung province to the Japanese as provided in the Treaty of Versailles. 2. To draw attention to China’s position and educate the masses. 3. To recommend a large-scale meeting in Beijing. 4. To hold a demonstration on May 4th expressing public opposition to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

Who opposed the Treaty of Versailles and why?

The opposition came from two groups: the “Irreconcilables,” who refused to join the League of Nations under any circumstances, and “Reservationists,” led by Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman, Henry Cabot Lodge, who wanted amendments made before they would ratify the Treaty.

What were the major failings of the Treaty of Versailles?

It was doomed from the start, and another war was practically certain.” 8 The principle reasons for the failure of the Treaty of Versailles to establish a long-term peace include the following: 1) the Allies disagreed on how best to treat Germany; 2) Germany refused to accept the terms of reparations; and 3) Germany’s …

Why was the Treaty of Versailles criticized?

The Treaty of Versailles has been criticized as a vindictive agreement that violated the spirit of Wilson’s Fourteen Points. The harsh terms hurt the German economy in the 1920s and contributed to the popularity of leaders such as Hitler who argued for the restoration of German honor through remilitarization.

How was the Treaty of Versailles a flawed peace?

It was also known as the “war guilt” clause. It placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany’s shoulders. As a result, Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies. All of Germany’s territories in Africa and the Pacific were declared mandates, or territories to be administered by the League of Nations.

Was the Treaty of Versailles successful and unsuccessful?

The treaty was lengthy, and ultimately did not satisfy any nation. The Versailles Treaty forced Germany to give up territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Poland, return Alsace and Lorraine to France and cede all of its overseas colonies in China, Pacific and Africa to the Allied nations.

What caused the failure of peace efforts?

What exactly was the cause of this war? World War II had six major causes: the failure of peace efforts after World War I, anger over the Treaty of Versailles, the goals of Hitler, the rise of Fascism, the re-defense of Europe, and the act of isolation by America and Britain.

Who suffered the most from the Treaty of Versailles?

Both sides suffered casualties on an almost incomprehensible scale. France had suffered more than 1.4 million dead, and more than 4 million wounded. In total, 8.5 million men had perished.

Was the Treaty of Versailles a mistake?

WHY THE TREATY REALLY FAILED. First, the Treaty of Versailles was not tough enough on Germany. In fact, as historian Correlli Barnett claimed, the treaty was “extremely lenient in comparison with the peace terms that Germany … had in mind to impose on the Allies” had Germany won the war.

Why was Treaty of Versailles hated by Germany?

The Treaty of Versailles was hated by Germany because she was stripped of 13% of her territory and 10 percent of the population; the border territories of Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France.

What were five problems that the peacemakers faced at Versailles?

WWI severely disrupted international trade.Even neutral European countries had suffered economically through loss of trade and German U-boats destroying their ships.Britain & France had changed their economic focus to meet the demands of war—lost overseas markets to US and Japan.More items…

What problems did the peacemakers faced at Versailles?

The first problem faced by the peacemakers at Versailles was the political and social instability in Europe, which necessitated that they act speedily to reach a peace settlement. one Allied observer noted that’there was a veritable race befi,veen peace and anarchy’.

Why did African leaders feel betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles?

– Germany was made to strip down its military. Why did people living in Europe’s African and Asian colonies feel betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles? They felt betrayed because they were not given the right of self-determination, as promised by the Fourteen Points of Wilson.

Why was the Treaty of Versailles a failure quizlet?

it failed because Germany (Hitler) had different ideas about it, he wanted to re-arm and have a larger military service.

Why was the Treaty of Versailles bad for Germany?

It is not hard to see why Germans were outraged. Germany lost 10% of its land, all its overseas colonies, 12.5% of its population, 16% of its coal and 48% of its iron industry. There were also the humiliating terms, which made Germany accept blame for the war, limit their armed forces and pay reparations.

What was the failure of the League of Nations?

Why did the League of Nations fail? There had to be unanimity for decisions that were taken. Unanimity made it really hard for the League to do anything. The League suffered big time from the absence of major powers — Germany, Japan, Italy ultimately left — and the lack of U.S. participation.

What were the 5 main terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

The terms of the treaty required that Germany pay financial reparations, disarm, lose territory, and give up all of its overseas colonies. It also called for the creation of the League of Nations, an institution that President Woodrow Wilson strongly supported and had originally outlined in his Fourteen Points address.

What did the students call for in the Treaty of Versailles?

The students also called for the removal of three government ministers who they considered responsible for the unacceptable Treaty conditions, Ts’ao, Lu, and Chang.

Who was the Chief Representative of the Southern Chinese government to the Paris Peace Talks?

Chief Representative from the Southern Chinese government to the Paris Peace Talks, Chu Ch’i-ch’ien, expressed support for the student demonstrators. The government made an attempt to co-opt student leaders by inviting them into government positions, though this never actually materialized.

What were the May 4th protests?

These were:#N#1. Opposition to granting Shantung province to the Japanese as provided in the Treaty of Versailles.#N#2. To draw attention to China’s position and educate the masses.#N#3. To recommend a large-scale meeting in Beijing.#N#4. To hold a demonstration on May 4th expressing public opposition to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.#N#The students also called for the removal of three government ministers who they considered responsible for the unacceptable Treaty conditions, Ts’ao, Lu, and Chang.

What was the economic justice issue?

The issue of economic justice was an addendum to the initial, student-led portion of the campaign as the demonstrations expanded to include a general strike of Beijing workers and merchants.

What happened to the protesters in the Japanese capital?

At one point, the protesters stormed the house of one of a pro-Japanese ministry official, where they maintained that a secret meeting was taking place. They ransacked the furniture and set fire to the house. After this incident, police arrested many students and imposed martial law around the area.

What were the influences of the Beijing campaign?

Influences on the campaign: Many of the Beijing students who catalyzed the campaign had studied abroad in the West. They brought the ideas and inspirations that they found there back to China. Specifically, Western ideals like the Wilsonian principles and exposure to things like the European labor movement and European literary and political thought (like Trotsky and Kropotkin), served as inspiration and motivation for generating social change in their own society.

What was the 20-one demand?

Relations with Japan were an important part of this political landscape; in January 1915, Japan presented a list of demands to Chinese President Yuan Shih-k’ai, known as the “Twenty-one Demands,” seeking to assert and expand Japanese control over various regions of China that the country had interest in.

What did Mao Zedong study?

Studying independently, he spent much time in Changsha’s library, reading core works of classical liberalism such as Adam Smith ‘s The Wealth of Nations and Montesquieu ‘s The Spirit of the Laws, as well as the works of western scientists and philosophers such as Darwin, Mill, Rousseau, and Spencer. Viewing himself as an intellectual, years later he admitted that at this time he thought himself better than working people. He was inspired by Friedrich Paulsen, whose liberal emphasis on individualism led Mao to believe that strong individuals were not bound by moral codes but should strive for the greater good, and that the “end justifies the means” conclusion of Consequentialism. His father saw no use in his son’s intellectual pursuits, cut off his allowance and forced him to move into a hostel for the destitute.

What did Mao do in 1919?

He joined Li’s Study Group and “developed rapidly toward Marxism” during the winter of 1919. Paid a low wage, Mao lived in a cramped room with seven other Hunanese students, but believed that Beijing’s beauty offered “vivid and living compensation”.

Why did Mao forget his involvement in the Hunan movement?

He was involved in the movement for Hunan autonomy, in the hope that a Hunanese constitution would increase civil liberties and make his revolutionary activity easier. When the movement was successful in establishing provincial autonomy under a new warlord, Mao forgot his involvement.

Why did Mao leave the CCP?

The CCP Central Committee, hiding in Shanghai, expelled Mao from their ranks and from the Hunan Provincial Committee, as punishment for his “military opportunism”, for his focus on rural activity, and for being too lenient with “bad gentry”. They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of Workers’ councils, the confiscation of all land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT. Mao’s response was to ignore them. He established a base in Jinggangshan City, an area of the Jinggang Mountains, where he united five villages as a self-governing state, and supported the confiscation of land from rich landlords, who were “re-educated” and sometimes executed. He ensured that no massacres took place in the region, and pursued a more lenient approach than that advocated by the Central Committee. He proclaimed that “Even the lame, the deaf and the blind could all come in useful for the revolutionary struggle”, he boosted the army’s numbers, incorporating two groups of bandits into his army, building a force of around 1,800 troops. He laid down rules for his soldiers: prompt obedience to orders, all confiscations were to be turned over to the government, and nothing was to be confiscated from poorer peasants. In doing so, he molded his men into a disciplined, efficient fighting force.

How many soldiers did Mao have?

Mao now commanded 15,000 soldiers, boosted by the arrival of He Long ‘s men from Hunan and the armies of Zhu De and Zhang Guotao returned from Tibet. In February 1936, they established the North West Anti-Japanese Red Army University in Yan’an, through which they trained increasing numbers of new recruits.

How did Mao Tse-tung get his name?

During Mao’s lifetime, the English-language media universally rendered his name as Mao Tse-tung, using the Wade-Giles system of transliteration for Standard Chinese though with the circumflex accent in the syllable “Tsê” dropped. Due to its recognizability, the spelling was used widely, even by the Foreign Ministry of the PRC after pinyin ( Hanyu Pinyin) became the PRC’s official romanization system for Mandarin Chinese in 1958. For example, the well-known booklet of Mao’s political statements, The Little Red Book, was officially entitled Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung in English translations. While the pinyin-derived spelling “Mao Zedong” is increasingly common, the Wade-Giles-derived spelling “Mao Tse-tung” continues to be used in modern publications to some extent.

How did Mao die?

After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82. During Mao’s era, China’s population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million while the government did not strictly enforce its family planning policy .

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