Did countries follow the berlin conference agreements


What were the results of the Berlin Conference?

One thing is clear—the Berlin Conference established the legal claim by Europeans that all of Africa could be occupied by whomever could take it. It also established a process for Europeans to cooperate rather than fight with each other. This cooperation played a huge role in the division and conquest of Africa.

What countries were affected by the Berlin Conference?

In snowy Berlin When the conference opened in Berlin on 15 November 1884, 14 countries – Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey and the USA – were represented by a plethora of ambassadors and envoys.

Which countries were independent after the Berlin Conference?

By 1895, the only independent states were:Morocco, involved in colonial conflicts with Spain and France, which conquered the nation in the 20th century.Liberia, founded with the support of the United States for freed slaves to return to Africa.More items…

What countries were not invited to the Berlin Conference?

The meeting was held in Berlin, Germany, from November 1884 to February 1885 and included representatives from the United States and such European nations as Britain, France, and Germany. No Africans were invited to the conference.

Was the Berlin Conference a failure?

The Berlin conference that convened last month to salvage the feeble Libyan political process was generally regarded by participants as a step in the right direction. German Chancellor Angela Merkel successfully kept the motion afloat as catastrophe loomed.

What are two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?

Note two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885. Agreement amongst 14 nations to divide Africa and the goal to change Africans (Assimilation).

What two countries remained independent?

The question of why these two countries survived while so many failed has intrigued historians since the 19th century. Ethiopia and Liberia are very different nations on opposite sides of the continent, but there are a number of commonalities between the two.

What agreements came out of the Berlin Conference?

The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal’s claims to the …

What was the outcome of the Berlin Conference quizlet?

Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.

Who was not invited to the Berlin Conference Why?

In 1884, fourteen European nations met in Berlin, Germany to make decisions about dividing Africa. And guess who was not invited to the meeting– the African people. There was no political leader, no delegate, nor ambassador from Africa at the Berlin Conference.

Did Russia take part in the Berlin Conference?

The Congress was attended by Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

Why were the African countries not invited to the Berlin Conference?

Why was Africa not invited to the Berlin Conference? Africa is a continent and would not fit in the room. In 1884 Africa countries were not regarded as legitimate and it was believed that the people would gain more under colonial “protection “.


The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a diplomatic conference to reorganise the states in the Balkan Peninsula after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, which had been won by Russia against the Ottoman Empire. Represented at the meeting were Europe’s then six great powers: Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany; the Ottomans; and four Bal…


In the decades leading up to the congress, Russia and the Balkans had been gripped by Pan-Slavism, a movement to unite all the Balkan Slavs under one rule. The Treaty of San Stefano, which had created a “Greater Bulgaria”, was opposed as a display of Pan-Slavic hegemonic ambition in southeastern Europe. In Imperial Russia, Pan-Slavism meant the creation of a unified Slavic state, unde…

Great powers in Balkans

The Balkans were a major stage for competition between the European great powers in the second half of the 19th century. Britain and Russia had interests in the fate of the Balkans. Russia was interested in the region, both ideologically, as a pan-Slavist unifier, and practically, to secure greater control of the Mediterranean. Britain was interested in preventing Russia from accomplishing its goals. Furthermore, the Unifications of Italy and of Germany had stymied the ab…

Treaty of San Stefano

After the Bulgarian April Uprising in 1876 and the Russian victory in the Russo-Turkish War in 1877–1878, Russia had liberated almost all of the Ottoman European possessions. The Ottomans recognised Montenegro, Romania and Serbia as independent, and the territories of all three of them were expanded. Russia created a large Principality of Bulgaria as an autonomous vassal of the …

Other powers’ fear of Russian influence

The principal mission of the participants at the Congress was to deal a fatal blow to the burgeoning movement of pan-Slavism. The movement caused serious concern in Berlin and even more so in Vienna, which was afraid that the repressed Slavic nationalities would revolt against the Habsburgs. The British and the French governments were nervous about both the diminishing influence of t…

Bismarck as host

The Congress of Berlin is frequently viewed as the culmination of the battle between Chancellors Alexander Gorchakov of Russia and Otto von Bismarck of Germany. Both were able to persuade other European leaders that a free and independent Bulgaria would greatly improve the security risks posed by a disintegrating Ottoman Empire. According to historian Erich Eyck, Bismarck su…


Bowing to Russia’s pressure, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro were all declared independent principalities. Russia kept Southern Bessarabia, which it had annexed in the Russo-Turkish War, but the Bulgarian state that it had created was first bisected and then divided again into the Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, both of which were given nominal autonomy, under the contr…

Internal opposition to Andrássy’s objectives

Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássy and the occupation and administration of Bosnia-Herzegovina also obtained the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottoman administration. The Sanjak preserved the separation of Serbia and Montenegro, and the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika that “would bring the western half of the Balkans under permanent Austrian influence”. “High [Au…

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