What was the result of the Berlin Conference?
Summary of the Berlin Conference The conference commenced from 15 th November, 1984. The colonists would be given charge of their colonies, only if they were in a position to maintain their hold over it. No European nation would have any restrictions for trade in the African continent and the same was to hold true for the coastline of Africa.
How did Eurocentrism affect society?
Stemming from Eurocentrism’s innate bias towards Western civilisation came the creation of the concept of the “European Society,” which favoured the components (mainly Christianity) of European civilisation and allowed eurocentrists to brand diverging societies and cultures as “uncivilized.”
What was the significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85?
A Summary and Significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. Here is a look at the significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. This conference was organized by the first Chancellor of unified Germany, Otto von Bismarck.
Why was the Berlin Conference called?
To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence of the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in the year 1884-85.
What was the main effect of the Berlin Conference?
One thing is clear—the Berlin Conference established the legal claim by Europeans that all of Africa could be occupied by whomever could take it. It also established a process for Europeans to cooperate rather than fight with each other. This cooperation played a huge role in the division and conquest of Africa.
What was the Berlin Conference how did it impact European colonization?
The Berlin Conference sought to end competition and conflict between European powers during the “Scramble for Africa” by establishing international protocols for colonization.
What was the real purpose of the Berlin Conference what did it result in?
Known as The Berlin Conference, they sought to discuss the partitioning of Africa, establishing rules to amicably divide resources among the Western countries at the expense of the African people. Of these fourteen nations at the Berlin Conference, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players.
How did the Berlin Conference influence European imperialism in Africa?
It created the rules for “effective occupation” of conquered lands, ensuring that the division of Africa would take place without war among the European powers. Through the Berlin Act, the European powers justified dividing a continent among themselves without considering the desires of the indigenous peoples.
What are 3 agreements that came out of the Berlin Conference?
The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal’s claims to the …
What are two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?
Note two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885. Agreement amongst 14 nations to divide Africa and the goal to change Africans (Assimilation).
Was the Berlin Conference successful?
The Berlin Conference did not initiate European colonization of Africa, but it did legitimate and formalize the process. In addition, it sparked new interest in Africa.
What were the long term effects of the Berlin Conference?
The colonial footprint legitimized by the Berlin Conference has left lasting consequences that continue to influence Africa’s future even today. On one hand, the rash manner in which the imperialists left Africa resulted in severe problems such as political instability and land degradation.
What was the outcome of the Berlin Conference quizlet?
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium.
What was the effect of the Berlin Conference on Africa?
It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.
How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown in this cartoon?
2) How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown in this cartoon? The Berlin Conference made it “okay” and justifiable for these European nations to colonize all of Africa, so inevitably everyone wanted a fair share, and an area with valuable resources/strategic location.
How did the Berlin Conference impact the boundaries of Africa?
At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over 1,000 indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.
What was the Berlin conference?
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference ( German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference ( Westafrika-Konferenz ), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany ‘s sudden emergence …
Which country reserves the right to decline or accept the conclusions of the conference?
Uniquely, the United States reserved the right to decline or to accept the conclusions of the conference.
What were the factors that triggered the European involvement in Africa?
By the early 1880s many factors including diplomatic successes, greater European local knowledge, and the demand of resources such as gold, timber, and rubber, triggered dramatically increased European involvement in the continent of Africa. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps …
What conference was held in 1884 to divide Africa?
Geography.about.com – Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 to Divide Africa.
What was the hinterland theory?
This gave rise to ” hinterland theory”, which basically gave any colonial power with coastal territory the right to claim political influence over an indefinite amount of inland territory. Since Africa was irregularly shaped, that theory caused problems and was later rejected.
How did European diplomats approach governments in Africa?
Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into …
Where is the first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to “spheres of influence”?
The first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to ” spheres of influence ” is contained in the Berlin Act.
Who argued that Eurocentrism went beyond other ethnocentrisms?
James M. Blaut (2000) argued that Eurocentrism indeed went beyond other ethnocentrisms, as the scale of European colonial expansion was historically unprecedented and resulted in the formation of a “colonizer’s model of the world”. Indigenous philosophies have been noted to greatly contrast with Eurocentric thought.
Who was the critic of Eurocentrism?
Andre Gunder Frank harshly criticised Eurocentrism. He believed that most scholars were the disciples of the social sciences and history guided by Eurocentrism. He criticised some Western scholars for their ideas that non-Western areas lack outstanding contributions in history, economy, ideology, politics and culture compared with the West. These scholars believed that the same contribution made by the West gives Westerners an advantage of endo-genetic momentum which is pushed towards the rest of the world, but Frank believed that the Oriental countries also contributed to the human civilisation in their own perspectives.
How has Eurocentrism affected beauty?
Eurocentrism has affected the beauty realm globally . The beauty standard has become Westernized and has influenced people throughout the globe. Many have altered their natural self to reflect this image. Many beauty and advertising companies have redirected their products to support the idea of Eurocentrism.
How did Eurocentrism affect Latin America?
Latin America. Eurocentrism affected Latin America through colonial domination and expansion. This occurred through the application of new criteria meant to “impose a new social classification of the world population on a global scale”.
What is a worldview centered on or biased towards Western civilization?
Worldview centered on or biased towards Western civilization. Eurocentrism (also Eurocentricity or Western-centrism) is a worldview that is centered on Western civilization or a biased view that favors it over non-Western civilizations. The exact scope of Eurocentrism varies from the entire Western world to just the continent …
What is the role of Eurocentrism in Western society?
Stemming from Eurocentrism’s innate bias towards Western civilisation came the creation of the concept of the “European Society,” which favoured the components (mainly Christianity) of European civilisation and allowed eurocentrists to brand diverging societies and cultures as “uncivilized.” Prevalent during the nineteenth century, the labelling of uncivilised in the eyes of eurocentrists enabled Western countries to classify non-European and non-white countries as inferior, and limit their inclusion and contribution in actions like international law. This exclusion was seen as acceptable by individuals like John Westlake, a professor of international law at the University of Cambridge at the time, who commented that countries with European civilisations should be who comprises the international society, and that countries like Turkey and Persia should only be allowed a part of international law. The figurative superiority resulting from the rise of “European Civilization” and the labels of “civilized” and “uncivilized” are partly responsible for eurocentrism’s denial of Islamic social evolution, giving westerners the advantage of an early dismissal of such ideas regarding Oriental civilisations through comparisons to the West. Along with that, the rooted belief of the inferiority of non-white and non-Europeans has given justification for racial discrimination and discredit to the Islamic world, with much of these feelings still present today.
What is European exceptionalism?
European exceptionalism is widely reflected in popular genres of literature, especially literature for young adults (for example, Rudyard Kipling ‘s Kim) and adventure literature in general. Portrayal of European colonialism in such literature has been analysed in terms of Eurocentrism in retrospect, such as presenting idealised and often exaggeratedly masculine Western heroes, who conquered ‘savage’ peoples in the remaining ‘dark spaces’ of the globe.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?
During the colonial expansion, there were territorial claims of the colonists that overlapped. To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence …
What countries attended the Berlin Conference?
This conference, known as the Berlin Conference, was attended by the diplomats of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Belgium, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the United States of America. Of all the nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, …
What was Otto von Bismarck’s plan?
Otto von Bismarck would come up with a backup plan, in case his original plans did not work out. Such a backup plan was known as ‘The Bismarck Plan’ and which later became famous as the ‘Plan B’. During the 19 th century, Africa was being seen as a source of untapped natural resources by the colonial powers of Europe.
What was the outcome of the Congo conference?
As an outcome of this conference, Congo would not only become a Belgian colony, it would come under the private domain of the Belgian King. It was also decided upon to maintain the neutrality of the African continent in case of a war.
What are the repercussions of the African partition?
This has resulted into infusion of violence and turmoil in the African continent.
Which African countries were freed at the end of the 20th century?
By the end of the 19 th century, all of Africa had come under European occupation, except for Ethiopia and Liberia. Ethiopia was successful in evading Italian invasion and Liberia that was formed by freed American slaves, were the only African nations that were free at the turn of the 20 th century.
When did Europe stop the slave trade?
Europe had made contact with Africa in the 15 th century and yet their focus was mainly on the slave trade that was finally banned in 1807 by Great Britain. This ban, however, did not deter others from continuing with slave trade. Till the 1870s, hardly any part of Africa had been under colonial occupation. After the respective unification of …
What does Eurocentrism mean?
It is sometimes unclear where exactly the United States fits. “Eurocentrism” can function as shorthand for Western-centrism but it can also mean a more specific privileging of Europe. Then there is the ambiguous status of Russia and eastern Europe.
What does “at least a third of the faculty focus on Europe” mean?
Departments are increasingly being torn between a desire to maintain traditional areas of strength—which can mean at least a third of the faculty focus on Europe—and calls for greater representation of parts of the world and topics not previously covered.
What is practical sense for all historians to look as widely as possible for studies of analogous subjects?
In general, it just makes practical sense for all historians to look as widely as possible for studies of analogous subjects that might give them new ideas about how to conceptualize and frame their work. And there are cases already where a western Europeanist hoping to write a state-of-the art piece will find this much harder to do if he or she has not kept up with the literature on other parts of the world. Urban historians interested in cultural issues would be foolish to ignore the things that Americanists George Chauncey and Marshall Berman have written about New York. All historians examining nationalism can benefit from knowing what Southeast Asianist Thongchai Winichakul and China specialist Prasenjit Duara have been up to. Anybody writing about colonialism can learn something important from reading Louise Young on Japan, Rebecca Scott on Cuba, and Florence Bernault on Africa. And so on.
When did the AHR run a work on modern Greece?
Similarly, when the AHR ran a work on modern Greece in 2000, several scholars told us how gratifying it was to finally see an article dealing with their area of concern. I admit that this kind of “thanks for including us in the discussion” reaction from Europeanists surprised me.
What are the limitations of the West/Two Thirds World divide?
Another limitation to thinking always of a West/Two-Thirds World divide is that it obscures other factors that can make historians feel marginalized. Temporality and genre of history often matters, as Grossberg noted in a thoughtful recent Perspectives piece on trends at the AHR.4 Many historians who work on the distant past (of any region) feel vulnerable just now, for example, and so do military historians interested in varied parts of the world. A focus on the West/Two-Thirds World divide can also blind us to other patterns. The tendency to treat the West as the unmarked case seems less pronounced, for example, in studies of gender than of other subjects at present. And historians of sexuality seem more willing than most to take part in broadly comparative dialogues. The robustly international structure of recent major conferences on homosexuality held in Los Angeles and Chicago illustrates this.
How long was Michael Grossberg editor?
Moreover, scanning back issues from the initial part of Michael Grossberg’s first five-year term as editor and the last five-year term of his predecessor (David Ransel) suggests that this has been the case for at least a decade.
What is the most general complaint about the European and American pasts?
Our most general complaint is that the European and American pasts continue to be treated too often as the only unmarked cases. Recent scholarship has shown that asymmetries of power and distortions of understanding are created whenever only certain people are described as having an “ethnicity” or being “gendered” subjects—that is, as having marked identities. This is manifest in the profession when scholars of strikes in American or European factories, for example, introduce themselves simply as “labor historians,” while those doing research on Nigeria or Chile are expected to specify that they study African or Latin American workers.