How did the berlin conference impact colonialism in africa


The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 formally regulated European colonial efforts in the Scramble for Africa and basically overrode the autonomy and self-governance of African peoples. It divided up European ownership of territories on the continent and set up regulations for claiming territories that led to increased aggression in colonization.

It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.Nov 15, 2019


What were the long term effects of the Berlin Conference?

The long-run effects of the Scramble for Africa

  • Identifying partitioned ethnicities. Quantifying the effects of the Scramble for Africa requires identifying the partitioned groups. …
  • The violent repercussions of the random border design. …
  • Spillovers. …
  • Conclusion. …
  • References. …

What is the Berlin Conference and why is it important?

The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 was held to ease tensions in Europe over colonial claims in Africa. The conference opened the door for the full-scale colonization of Africa by European countries. A major issue between European countries, the navigation of the Niger and Congo Rivers, was resolved by the meeting.

What was the Berlin Conference and what was its purpose?

What was the Berlin conference and what was its purpose? The Berlin conference took place in 1884-1885 and was also known as the Congo conference and the West Africa conference. The purpose was to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period.

What were the consequences of the Berlin Conference?

What were the consequences of the Berlin conference? Some of the negative impacts included, loss of land, enslavement in these new territories, natural resources being taken from the people, and European disease. The African people weren’t even asked or apart of the conference so they just had their land taken from them with no say at all.


How did the Berlin Conference contribute to the rapid colonization of Africa?

One thing is clear—the Berlin Conference established the legal claim by Europeans that all of Africa could be occupied by whomever could take it. It also established a process for Europeans to cooperate rather than fight with each other. This cooperation played a huge role in the division and conquest of Africa.

How did Africa change after the Berlin Conference?

At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over 1,000 indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.

What happened at the Berlin Conference and how did it affect Africa?

The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal’s claims to the …

Did the Berlin Conference colonize Africa?

Neither the Berlin Conference itself nor the framework for future negotiations provided any say for the peoples of Africa over the partitioning of their homelands. The Berlin Conference did not initiate European colonization of Africa, but it did legitimate and formalize the process.

What impact did the Berlin Conference have on Africa quizlet?

Europeans set boundaries that combined peoples that were enemies. How did the Berlin Conference change Africa? It did so by dividing Africa without considering the wishes of native Africans or traditional tribal boundaries. The Berlin Conference is often cited as a root cause of Africa’s twentieth century violence.

What are two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?

Note two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885. Agreement amongst 14 nations to divide Africa and the goal to change Africans (Assimilation).

What resulted from the Berlin Conferences of 1884 and 1885 that determined European control of Africa?

In 1884, Otto von Bismarck convened the Berlin Conference to discuss the African problem. Its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, formalized the Scramble for Africa. The diplomats in Berlin laid the rules of competition by which the great powers were to be guided in seeking colonies.

What were the long term effects of the Berlin Conference?

The colonial footprint legitimized by the Berlin Conference has left lasting consequences that continue to influence Africa’s future even today. On one hand, the rash manner in which the imperialists left Africa resulted in severe problems such as political instability and land degradation.

Who started colonization in Africa?

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a physical presence in Africa, in the 1480s, but through the 1870s European outposts were restricted to ports along the African coasts focusing on trade and diplomacy.

When was Africa divided for colonization?

In 1885 European leaders met at the infamous Berlin Conference to divide Africa and arbitrarily draw up borders that exist to this day.

What were the justifications for colonizing Africa?

The reasons for African colonisation were mainly economic, political and religious. During this time of colonisation, an economic depression was occurring in Europe, and powerful countries such as Germany, France, and Great Britain, were losing money.

What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?

In 1884, at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany’s sphere of influence over Africa and hoped to force Germany’s …

How many countries were represented at the Berlin Conference?

Countries Represented at the Berlin Conference. Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, …

What happened to the African continent in 1950?

The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily.”.

Which country took much of Western Africa?

France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa), as well as Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa).

Which countries did the British control?

Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded through their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan ), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa , and Zambia, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and Botswana . The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast).

Who was the king of Belgium during the Berlin Conference?

Despite its neutrality, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgium’s King Leopold II. Under his rule, over half of the region’s population died. At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference, the European colonial powers scrambled …

Which country took Mozambique?

Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west. Italy’s holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia. Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa). Spain claimed the smallest territory, which was Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni).

How did the Berlin Conference of 1884-5 affect Africa?

The main way in which the Berlin Conference of 1884-5 affected Africa was by chopping it up into areas that would be colonized by various European countries. This had long-lasting effects on the continent.

What were the negative effects of the Berlin Conference?

The negative impact of the Berlin Conference was the forced assimilation of ethnic groups that didn’t necessarily get along. These arbitrary boundaries did not take into consideration the tribal elements of Africa. Many of these ethnic groups simply did not have the familiarity with one another. Moreover, it also split up groups that have lived together for centuries.

What happened before the Berlin Conference?

Before the Berlin Conference, most of Africa was still in the hands of Africans. Europeans had only colonized coastal areas. However, this was changing. At the conference, the European countries divided up essentially all of Africa. They decided which European countries would get to own which parts of Africa. This doomed the African continent to decades of colonization by European powers.

Why did the Berlin Conference create spheres of influence?

The Berlin Conference carved up Africa into spheres of influence. Without asking the indigenous people, Europeans gathered together to see who would control which piece of the continent. While this was done in order to ensure that no country would fight another one over a territorial dispute in Africa, it…

What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 formally regulated European colonial efforts in the Scramble for Africa and basically overrode the autonomy and self-governance of African peoples. It divided up European ownership of territories on the continent and set up regulations for claiming territories that led to increased aggression in colonization.

How did colonization affect Africans?

The Europeans ran the colonial economies in ways that made money for the Europeans but did not enrich Africans and did not even train them to someday know how to do good jobs. The colonial governments did not allow Africans to participate. They did not really educate Africans. This meant that when independence came, there were very few Africans with the education or the experience needed to set up their own modern governments. These things helped make many African countries poor and chaotic after independence.

How long did the Berlin Conference take to colonize Africa?

Ignoring ancient cultural lines and people groups, the participants of the Berlin Conference spent about three months devising guidelines for colonization of not just Africa’s coast but the interior as well.

What was the Berlin Conference?

Often called ‘Africa’s undoing’, the Berlin Conference saw the powers of Europe divide the African continent like young boys dividing up baseball cards. With little to no concern for the culture of the continent, maps were redrawn and lands were claimed. As Europe bickered over who got what, the native inhabitants of Africa watched as their culture …

What principle of effectivity was established?

Being especially devastating to the native populations, the Principle of Effectivity was also established. This made it acceptable for one European nation to claim-jump another European nation’s African claims if they were not fully exploiting the land.

Why did the Berlin Conference convene in the mid-1880s?

In order to establish some sort of order amid this scramble, the Berlin Conference convened in the mid-1880s to create guidelines for the division of Africa. As over a dozen European powers met, it was decided that the Congo and Niger Rivers would remain free to all European trade.

What did the boundaries of all these new countries hold little respect for?

Sadly, the boundaries of all these new countries held little respect for the culture, or the long-established boundaries of the native people groups.

Who explored the Congo region?

When Henry Morton Stanley explored the Congo region, Europe’s interest in the continent swelled, and in the 1870s organizations like the International African Society and the International Congo Society were formed by Europeans to research and civilize the continent. Of course, it didn’t take long for researching and civilizing to turn …

Which countries controlled Africa?

Great Britain held places like Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Egypt, the Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe and more, while France controlled much of Western Africa. Belgium controlled the Congo, and Germany took places like Tanzania and Namibia. Not to be left out, the Portuguese, the Italians, and the Spanish also got their share.

What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference. The Berlin Conference can be best understood as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa. This British coined the term sometime in 1884, and it has since been used to describe the twenty-plus years when the various European powers explored, divided, conquered and began to exploit virtually the entire African continent.

How long did the Berlin Conference last?

The Berlin Conference spanned almost four months of deliberations, from 15 November 1884 to 26 February 1885. By the end of the Conference the European powers had neatly divided Africa up amongst themselves, drawing the boundaries of Africa much as we know them today.

What was the significance of Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin?

Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–77) removed the last bit of terra incognita from European maps of the continent, thereby delineating the rough areas of British, Portuguese, French, and Belgian control. The powers raced to push these rough boundaries to their furthest limits and eliminating any local minor rulers which might prove troublesome to European competitive diplomacy.

Why was Africa ignored?

This changed as a result of King Leopold of Belgium’s desire for personal glory and riches and b y the mid-19th century, Africa was considered ripe for exploration, trade, and settlement.

How did European diplomacy treat African indigenous people?

Prior to the conference, European diplomacy treated African indigenous people in the same manner as they treated New World natives, forming trade realtions with tribal chiefs. This can seen in examples such as the Portuguese trading with the Kingdom of the Kongo.

When did the Scramble for Africa begin?

European powers were slow to realise the benefits of claiming land in Africa and had mainly kept to coastal colonies. However in 1884–5 the Scramble for Africa had truly began in earnest when thirteen European countries and the United States met in Berlin to agree to the rules dividing Africa.

Why did France move to occupy Tunisia?

France moved to occupy Tunisia, one of the last of the Barbary Pirate states, under the pretext of another Islamic terror and piracy incident.


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