How did the paris peace conference affect the middle east


The post-Paris Peace Conference order caused wars and other human disasters for the next 100 years in post-Ottoman lands. The Sykes-Picot model of building nation-states has failed spectacularly in the Middle East, and the disastrous drawing of borders has resulted in an endless cycle of ethnic, religious and political conflict.

New borders were drawn in Europe leading to the establishment of new states. Territories in the Middle East and the former colonial possessions became mandates under the protection of specific Allied powers.


What was the result of the Paris Peace Conference?

The Paris Peace Conference famously termed as a “peace to end all peace” by David Fromkin, but in reality, laid the foundations for innumerable subsequent conflicts in the territories in question. The Ottoman Empire and its lands were one of the few questions that went unsolved in the Paris Peace Conference.

What countries were involved in the Paris Peace Conference?

The five major powers (France, Britain, Italy, the U.S., and Japan) controlled the Conference. Amongst the “Big Five”, in practice Japan only sent a former prime minister and played a small role; and the ” Big Four ” leaders dominated the conference.

What role did Prince Feisal play at the Paris Peace Conference?

Lawrence encouraged Prince Feisal to come to the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles to represent the Arab cause, and the British War Cabinet designated Lawrence to work with him.

How many treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference?

Five major peace treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference (with, in parentheses, the affected countries): the Treaty of Sèvres, 10 August 1920; subsequently revised by the Treaty of Lausanne, 24 July 1923 ( Ottoman Empire / Republic of Turkey ).


What were the effects of the Paris Peace Conference?

The major decisions were the establishment of the League of Nations; the five peace treaties with defeated enemies; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as “mandates”, chiefly to members of the British Empire and to France; reparations imposed on Germany; and the drawing of new national boundaries ( …

What happened to the Middle East as a result of the Treaty of Versailles?

The two countries decided to divide the Arab territories of the Ottoman Empire between them. France would take what is now Syria and Lebanon, and Britain would take what is now Iraq and Jordan, along with the Gulf States, which it already controlled. Palestine was to be under international control.

What happened to the Ottoman Empire as a result of the Paris Peace Conference?

Subsequently as a consequence of the Paris Peace Conference, the Treaty of Sevres was signed on 10 August 1920, a peace agreement, which violated all sovereign rights of the Ottoman Empire via a combination of land loss, debt payments and the dissolution of its army – a natural successor of the ideas behind the Sykes- …

How did the Paris Peace Conference affect the world politically?

The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 ended World War 1, but it also designed our post-war future. It redrew the map of the world; partitioned and created countries; and ushered in a new era of international relations, creating the first “world organisation” – the League of Nations.

How did the Middle East change after the fall of the Ottoman Empire?

The demise of the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Caliphate) made a lasting impact to the Muslim world. Britain and France curved up the Middle East through Sykes-Picot Agreement and gave birth to a new Middle East where oil and petrodollar shaped the politics and economy under their patronage.

What did the division of the Middle East lead to?

The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the war led to the domination of the Middle East by Western powers such as Britain and France, and saw the creation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey.

Was the Paris Peace Conference a success or failure?

Set against the backdrop of contemporary expectations, the Paris Peace Treaties almost inevitably disappointed everyone and it failed in achieving its ultimate objective: the creation of a secure, peaceful, and lasting world order.

Which country was not satisfied Paris Peace Conference?

The Allied Powers refused to recognize the new Bolshevik Government and thus did not invite its representatives to the Peace Conference. The Allies also excluded the defeated Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria).

Why is the Paris Peace Conference significance?

The Paris Peace Conference was an international meeting convened in January 1919 at Versailles just outside Paris. The purpose of the meeting was to establish the terms of the peace after World War.

Why was the Paris Peace Conference a failure?

It was doomed from the start, and another war was practically certain.” 8 The principle reasons for the failure of the Treaty of Versailles to establish a long-term peace include the following: 1) the Allies disagreed on how best to treat Germany; 2) Germany refused to accept the terms of reparations; and 3) Germany’s …

Which new nations were created by the Paris Peace Conference?

Austria, Hungary, Poland : Glacier, Czechoslovakia, Poland : Danzig corridor, Poland : east, Iceland, Ireland, Finland, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia.

Why was the Paris Peace Conference a cause of ww2?

Treaty of Versailles caused German resentment that Hitler capitalized on to gain support and that led to the beginning to World War II. The Treaty of Versailles had a crippling effect on the German economy.

What was the Paris Peace Conference?

The Paris Peace Conference famously termed as a “peace to end all peace” by David Fromkin, but in reality, laid the foundations for innumerable subsequent conflicts in the territories in question. The Ottoman Empire and its lands were one of the few questions that went unsolved in the Paris Peace Conference. Imperialist designs were nothing new …

Which countries were ready to sign the peace agreement?

Even though draft papers of the peace agreements for Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria were ready, the victors did not want to make each other more powerful in the process of dividing the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.

What was the National Pact movement?

The National Pact movement was the rejection of any Greek and Armenian invasion by organising the people of Anatolia and the remnants of the Ottoman army. Moreover, the National Pact ideal was crowned in the Congress of Erzurum by the powerful statement “The nation shall not accept the status of a mandate or a protectorate.”.

Why did the protagonists meet in Paris?

The major protagonists met in Paris in January 1919 to negotiate the makeup of the new order in the aftermath of the Great War. However, the victorious powers could not agree on how to divide one particular state: The Ottoman Empire.

What were post-Ottoman lands?

The post-Ottoman lands were identified as “ countries/peoples not yet able to stand by themselves ” which were mainly mandated by Britain and France under the supervision of League of Nations. These countries still are under the discussion of being too “immature” to govern themselves.

What caused the massacre of WWII?

The fatal mistakes of the Treaty of Versailles caused another massacre of gigantic scale, namely WWII, just 20 years later.

Which countries were involved in the bloodbath?

The bloodbath ended with an armistice between the Allied Powers (or Entente Powers) –principally France, the United Kingdom, and Russia— and the Central powers principally comprising of Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire (OE) and Bulgaria in 1918.

What was the Paris Peace Conference?

Paris Peace Conference, (1919–20), the meeting that inaugurated the international settlement after World War I.

What was the name of the peace conference that the United States signed in Paris?

United States: The Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty

What did the Americans and British oppose?

Concerning the former, the Americans and the British resisted French demands affecting Germany’s western frontier and the Polish demand, supported by France, for Danzig ( Gdańsk ), while the Americans also objected to Japanese claims to Germany’s special privileges in Shantung (Shandong), China.

What was the purpose of the Council of Five?

The five great powers likewise controlled the Supreme Economic Council, created in February 1919 to advise the conference on economic measures to be taken pending the negotiation of peace.

Why was the Supreme Council of Four reduced to a Council of Four?

In March, however, the Supreme Council was, for reasons of convenience, reduced to a Council of Four, numbering only the Western heads of government, as the chief Japanese plenipotentiary, Prince Saionji Kimmochi, abstained from concerning himself with matters of no interest to Japan.

When did the League of Nations start?

The formal inauguration of the League of Nations on January 16, 1920, brought the Paris conference to an end, before the conclusion of treaties with Turkey (1920, 1923) or with Hungary (1920).

Why did Lawrence encourage Prince Feisal to come to the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles?

Lawrence encouraged Prince Feisal to come to the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles to represent the Arab cause, and the British War Cabinet designated Lawrence to work with him. “Lawrence’s real achievement in his two years with the Arabians in the World War,” argues the historian David Fromkin, “was to invent a role for [the] …

Who were the advisors of the Arabian Commission to the Peace Conference?

In front, Emir Feisal with, from left to right, Mohanned Rustum Bey Haidar of Baalbek, Brigadier General Nuri Pasha Said, Captain Pisani, T.E. Lawrence and Capt. Hassan Bey Kadri.

Why did Lawrence refuse to accept the medals?

He had even met with the king, George V. At this meeting, Lawrence caused a minor scandal by refusing to accept the medals the king wanted to award him because, Lawrence said, of his shame that he had participated in betraying the Arab cause and his outrage at the Sykes-Picot agreement. Lawrence encouraged Prince Feisal to come to …

What did Lawrence hope for after reading Wilson’s 14 points?

After reading Wilson’s 14 points outlining the case for self-rule, Lawrence pinned his hopes for an Arab solution upon the American delegation.

What was the name of the conference called to redraw the map of the world after the First World War?

Main content: Certainly one of the more unusual sights at the peace conference called to redraw the map of the world after the First World War was the member of the British delegation walking around Versailles in Arab robes. It was at the Paris Peace Conference from January to June 1919 that T.E.

What was Lawrence’s military success during the war?

Lawrence’s military success during the war had won him a hearing in Britain. He had expounded on his hopes for Arab sovereignty before a committee of the War Cabinet and in a memorandum for the War Cabinet. He had written anonymous articles on the subject for the Times of London.

Who helped Prince Feisal present the Arab point of view at Versailles?

Lawrence helped Prince Feisal eloquently present the Arab point of view at Versailles. The prince read a speech in Arabic, apparently written by Lawrence , to the leaders of the Allied powers. Then Lawrence read it in English. And when the American President, Woodrow Wilson, noticed that some of the Europeans did not understand, Lawrence provided an impromptu translation of the speech into French. Lawrence hoped that the Americans, at least, would be sympathetic. But in the end the Arab point of view was mostly ignored.



In April 1919 British Prime Minister David Lloyd George (1863-1945) compared peacemaking in Paris with the 1815 post-Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars negotiations: “You then had to settle the affairs of Europe alone. It took eleven months. But the problems at the Congress of Vienna, great as they were, sink int…

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from War to Peace?↑

  • On 28 June 1914 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (1863-1914), heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his wife were assassinated at Sarajevo. Within six weeks all the European great powers, excepting Italy, were at war. It was not the short decisive encounter expected but in 1918 its equally rapid denouement took the victors by surprise. After final German assaults fro…

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A New World Order?↑

  • It was a very different world to that of 1914. The United States made decisive interventions in the war and peacemaking, but this reversal of a century-old tradition of non-involvement in European affairs now seemed a temporary lapse after the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The British Dominions, their identities tempered by war, expected greater autonomy, whilst Irish …

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  • Keynes (and many subsequent writers) condemned the reparations settlement. In wartime speeches Wilson and Lloyd George had ruled out seeking an indemnity (the full repayment of war costs). The pre-armistice agreement limited liability to “all damage done to the civilian population of the Allies and their property by the aggression of Germany by land, by sea, and from the air” (r…

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National Self-Determination↑

  • The hope that national self-determination would create a secure and contented Eastern Europe in place of the former multinational empires was soon dashed. The French predicted that German revisionism would begin here and the region’s instability and bitterness helped to poison post-war international relations. All the new states were dissatisfied with their frontiers, whilst the ethnic …

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  • Nicolson was typical of many Anglo-American participants when he declared, “We came to Paris convinced that the new order was about to be established; we left it convinced that the old order had merely fouled the new.”This harsh judgement has been echoed by many subsequent historians, though the release of governmental archives from the 1960s onwards and recognitio…

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The Paris Peace Conference was the formal meeting in 1919 and 1920 of the victorious Allies after the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Dominated by the leaders of Britain, France, the United States and Italy, it resulted in five treaties that rearranged the maps of Europe and parts of Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands, and also imposed financial pe…

Overview and direct results

The Conference formally opened on 18 January 1919 at the Quai d’Orsay in Paris. This date was symbolic, as it was the anniversary of the proclamation of William I as German Emperor in 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, shortly before the end of the Siege of Paris – a day itself imbued with significance in its turn in Germany as the anniversary of the establishment of the Kingdom …


A central issue of the conference was the disposition of the overseas colonies of Germany. (Austria-Hungary did not have major colonies, and the Ottoman Empire was a separate issue.)
The British dominions wanted their reward for their sacrifice. Australia wanted New Guinea, New Zealand wanted Samoa, and South Africa wanted South Wes…

British approach

The maintenance of the unity, territories, and interests of the British Empire was an overarching concern for the British delegates to the conference, but they entered the conference with more specific goals with this order of priority:
• Ensuring the security of France
• Removing the threat of the German High Seas Fleet

French approach

French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau controlled his delegation, and his chief goal was to weaken Germany militarily, strategically, and economically. Having personally witnessed two German attacks on French soil in the last 40 years, he was adamant for Germany not to be permitted to attack France again. Particularly, Clemenceau sought an American and British joint guarantee of Fr…

Italian approach

In 1914, Italy remained neutral despite the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1915, it joined the Allies to gain the territories promised by the Triple Entente in the secret Treaty of London: Trentino, the Tyrol as far as Brenner, Trieste, Istria, most of the Dalmatian Coast (except Fiume), Valona, a protectorate over Albania, Antalya (in Turkey), and possibly colonies in Africa.

Japanese approach

Japan sent a large delegation, headed by the former Prime Minister, Marquis Saionji Kinmochi. It was originally one of the “big five” but relinquished that role because of its slight interest in European affairs. Instead, it focused on two demands: the inclusion of its Racial Equality Proposal in the League’s Covenant and Japanese territorial claims with respect to former German colonies: Shant…

American approach

Until Wilson’s arrival in Europe in December 1918, no sitting American president had ever visited the continent. Wilson’s 1917 Fourteen Points, had helped win many hearts and minds as the war ended in America and all over Europe, including Germany, as well as its allies in and the former subjects of the Ottoman Empire.

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