The treaty of Versailles was one of several peace treaties which signaled the end of the devastating years of World War I. It sealed the end of the war between Germany and the Allied
Allies of World War I
The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers were the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria–Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria during the First World War. By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, the major European powers were divided between the Tripl…
Powers. Here is everything you need to know about this key treaty. When was it signed?
What did the Treaty of Versailles do?
The treaty of Versailles was one of several peace treaties which signaled the end of the devastating years of World War I. It sealed the end of the war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
Where did the Versailles Conference take place?
The Conference took place in Versailles just outside the French Capital. The sumptuous Palace of Versailles had been the scene many meetings and negotiations already. It was famous as it had once been the home of the extravagant French monarch, King Louis XVI, and his wife, Marie-Antoinette.
Did the Peace of Versailles cause World War II?
In 1961, in an equally celebrated book, The Origins of the Second World War, the British historian AJP Taylor asserted that “the peace of Versailles lacked moral validity from the start” and claimed that “the first war explains the second and, in fact, caused it, in so far as one event causes another”.
Why was the Treaty of Versailles a good thing?
It officially brought about peace in the region. Although the war seemed to have ended in 1918 after armistices were signed, there was still the threat of war cleaving the region. Consequently, the treaty created a lasting peace that allowed everyone to start rebuilding.
What 3 things did the Treaty of Versailles accomplish?
The Treaty of Versailles held Germany responsible for starting the war and imposed harsh penalties in terms of loss of territory, massive reparations payments and demilitarization.
Was Treaty of Versailles successful?
The treaty was lengthy, and ultimately did not satisfy any nation. The Versailles Treaty forced Germany to give up territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia and Poland, return Alsace and Lorraine to France and cede all of its overseas colonies in China, Pacific and Africa to the Allied nations.
How did the Treaty of Versailles impact Germany?
Germany lost 10% of its land, all its overseas colonies, 12.5% of its population, 16% of its coal and 48% of its iron industry. There were also the humiliating terms, which made Germany accept blame for the war, limit their armed forces and pay reparations.
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty of Versailles was the primary treaty produced by the Paris Peace Conference at the end of World War I. It was signed on June 28, 1919, b…
Who were the key people involved in drafting the Treaty of Versailles?
The chief people responsible for the Treaty of Versailles were U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, and British Prime Mini…
What were the main provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty of Versailles gave Germany new boundaries. Alsace-Lorraine was given to France and Eupen-Malmédy to Belgium. Territory in eastern German…
What were the results of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles under protest, and the United States did not ratify the treaty. France and Britain at first tried to enforc…
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty required the new German Government to surrender approximately 10 percent of its prewar territory in Europe and all of its overseas possessions.
What was the Paris Peace Conference?
The conference was called to establish the terms of the peace after World War I. Though nearly thirty nations participated, the representatives of the United Kingdom, France, the United States, …
How much gold did the Germans get from the Treaty of Versailles?
The Inter-Allied Commission determined the amount and presented its findings in 1921. The amount they determined was 132 billion gold Reichmarks, or 32 billion U.S. dollars, on top of the initial $5 billion payment demanded by the Treaty. Germans grew to resent the harsh conditions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.
Which article of the Treaty dealt with collective security and the League of Nations?
Senate strongly opposed it. Senate opposition cited Article 10 of the Treaty, which dealt with collective security and the League of Nations.
Which countries fought in the Paris Peace Conference?
Treaty of Versailles. Negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference were complicated. The United Kingdom, France, and Italy fought together as the Allied Powers during the First World War. The United States, entered the war in April 1917 as an Associated Power.
Which countries were part of the Big Four?
Though nearly thirty nations participated, the representatives of the United Kingdom, France, the United States, and Italy became known as the “Big Four.”. The “Big Four” dominated the proceedings that led to the formulation of the Treaty of Versailles, a treaty that ended World War I.
Which treaty did the United States not join?
This separate peace treaty with Germany stipulated that the United States would enjoy all “rights, privileges, indemnities, reparations or advantages” conferred to it by the Treaty of Versailles, but left out any mention of the League of Nations, which the United States never joined.
Who was responsible for the Treaty of Versailles?
The chief people responsible for the Treaty of Versailles were U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, and British Prime Minister David Lloyd George. Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando was a delegate but was shut out from the decision making.
When did the Treaty of Versailles take effect?
Treaty of Versailles, peace document signed at the end of World War I by the Allied and associated powers and by Germany in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, France, on June 28, 1919; it took force on January 10, 1920. A brief treatment of the Treaty of Versailles follows.
What did Clemenceau want?
Clemenceau wanted to make sure that Germany would not be a threat to France in the future, and he was not persuaded by Wilson’s idealism. Lloyd George favoured creating a balance of powers but was adamant that Germany pay reparations.
What was the German treaty?
The treaty gave some German territories to neighbouring countries and placed other German territories under international supervision. In addition, Germany was stripped of its overseas colonies, its military capabilities were severely restricted, and it was required to pay war reparations to the Allied countries.
What was the demilitarized zone between Germany and France?
In addition, a demilitarized zone was created between Germany and France. Germany was required to accept responsibility for causing all the damage of the war that was “imposed upon [the Allies] by the aggression of Germany…” and to pay an unspecified amount of money in reparations.
How long did the League of Nations last?
The League of Nations lasted for 26 years and had some initial successes but failed to advance a more general disarmament or to avert international aggression and war. It did, however, lay the groundwork for the subsequent founding of the United Nations.
Which countries were returned to France?
In the west, Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France, and the Saarland was placed under the supervision of the League of Nations until 1935. In the north, three small areas were given to Belgium, and, after a plebiscite in Schleswig, northern Schleswig was returned to Denmark.
What were the goals of the Allies after World War I?
Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson at the Formal Signing of the Treaty.
How did France dominant the treaty conference after World War I?
Each of the powers represented at the treaty conference came out with some disappointments. The British goal of stability was largely subverted by revolutions across Europe and France’s demand to increase Germany’s punishment. Italy did not receive territory promised in secret deliberations during the war.
How did Germany React to the Treaty of Versailles?
Mass Demonstration against the Treaty of Versailles at the Reichstag in 1919.
Rather than foster long-term peace and stability, the Versailles Treaty’s main goal of handling Germany instead sparked movements that would lead directly into World War II. The National Socialist Party used widespread anger about Versailles with the economic collapse of the Great Depression to come to power in 1933.
When was it signed?
The hostilities of the First World War came to an end at last on November 11 th 1918, following a series of Armistices across Europe. Early the following year the process of negotiating peace began with the opening of the Paris Peace Conference.
Who were the key players?
Council of Four at the WWI Paris peace conference, May 27, 1919. From left: Prime Minister David Lloyd George (Great Britian) Premier Vittorio Orlando, Italy, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, President Woodrow Wilson.
What brought it about?
Workmen decommission a heavy gun, to comply with the treaty. Photo Credit.
What was the purpose of the Versailles conference?
After the war a conference was held at the Versailles Palace just outside of Paris. The purpose was to write a treaty that would set the terms of the peace. The treaty was finally signed on June 28, 1919. Below is a famous political cartoon. With a partner, examine the cartoon and answer the questions that follow.
What did the framers of the Treaty of Versailles hope would do?
The framers of the treaty hoped that it would stabilize Europe and ensure that another catastrophic war would never happen again . But just over two decades later, the flames of war consumed Europe. This Mini-Q examines the ways in which the treaty contributed to the Second World War.
What was the purpose of the League of Nations?
League of Nations: Organization established by the Versailles Treaty whose main purpose was to promote world peace. It was not successful in stopping World War Il and was replaced by the United Nations in 1945. 358 02012 The DBQ Project . Treaty of Versailles Mini-Q Background Essay Questions 1.
How many years between the signing of the Versailles Treaty and the beginning of Hitler’s dictatorship?
Time: Review the years of World War I (1914 — 1918), the signing of the Versailles Treaty (1919), and World War Il (1939 — 1945). It was 14 short years between the signing of the treaty and the beginning of Hitler’s dictatorship in 1933.
What was the main cause of WW2?
The reason for the war was, at bottom, a struggle for eco- nomic and political power.
How many divisions of the German army were there in 1920?
By a date which must not be later than March 31, 1920, the German Army must not com- prise more than seven divisions of infantry and three divisions of cavalry . .. After that date the total number of [military troops]… in… Germany must not exceed one hundred thousand men, including officers….
Who signed the Versailles Treaty?
Overview: On June 28, 1919 — seven and a half months after the horrific fighting of World War I ended in November 1918 — the Versailles Treaty was signed by the victorious Allied nations of Great Britain, France, and the United States and by a defeated Germany.
When did the Treaty of Versailles come into effect?
But was the resulting Treaty of Versailles – which was signed on 28 June 1919 in France and came into effect on 10 January 1920 – so harsh on the German people that it guaranteed …
Who said the peace of Versailles lacked moral validity from the start?
In 1961, in an equally celebrated book, The Origins of the Second World War, the British historian AJP Taylor asserted that “the peace of Versailles lacked moral validity from the start” and claimed that “the first war explains the second and, in fact, caused it, in so far as one event causes another”. Similarly, in 1984 the US diplomat and …
What was the Paris conference?
The Paris conference was an attempt to clean up the mess: the peacemakers did not start with a blank slate. Compromise was not only the result of disputes among the leading victor powers.
What was the most consequential treaty of 1919?
But the most consequential of these was the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, signed in the Hall of Mirrors on 28 June 1919. For France, vengeance was sweet. “ Une belle journée ,” Georges Clemenceau, the French premier, declared tearfully. He told the assemblage: “We are here to sign a treaty of peace.”.
Why did David Lloyd George want reparations?
The British prime minister, David Lloyd George, though anxious to gain reparations from Germany, saw the German economy as vital to the recovery of Europe. He feared that too punitive a peace would feed a desire for revenge and encourage the spread of Bolshevism across the continent.
What did Wilhelm I say to the assemblage?
He told the assemblage: “We are here to sign a treaty of peace.”. Both the timing and venue had been carefully calculated by the French. The start date, 18 January, was the anniversary of the day in 1871 when Wilhelm I had been proclaimed as emperor of the new German Reich in the Hall of Mirrors.
Why was it impossible to turn the tables in 1919?
Yet this was impossible in 1919 because Germany had not been invaded, conquered and occupied.
End of World War I
Start of World War II
The most famous legacy of the Treaty of Versailles is that its draconian terms — designed to prevent Germany from repeating its military aggression — instead created an economic and political crisis that led to the rise of Hitler and the start of World War II. The ‘war guilt’ clause, which apportioned all blame to Germany, and crippling reparation …
The League of Nations
The forerunner to the modern United Nations, the League of Nations was the first global institution founded on a principle of mutually-assured defence — the guarantee that countries would defend each other from aggression. But although President Woodrow Wilson was a key architect of Versailles through his ‘Fourteen Points’, the United States never joined the League a…
Alsace Lorraine Returned to France
The region, which had been annexed in 1870, was returned to France along with a slew of other European territories. In total, Germany forfeited almost 70,000 km2 of land — shrinking by more than 10% — but the loss of the valuable coalfields of Alsace Lorraine was a particular blow. As part of the wider European carve-up, part of western Prussia was given to Poland, giving it acces…
The International Labour Organisation
The treaty established the International Labour Organisation, set up to broaden and standardise global rights such as decent work and pay and social protection for all. 6. Cemented the concept of Yugoslavia Balkan disputes were the trigger-point for World War I, and the fashionable concept of a single slavic entity gained traction during the conflict until the formation of the Kingdom of …
End of Germany’s Global Empire
Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s colonies were taken over — officially as mandates of the League of Nations, but in practice under the control of Britain (Togoland and Tanganyika), France (Cameroon) and Belgium (Ruanda-Urundi). Other changes on the global map saw Samoa handed to New Zealand and New Guinea to Australia. This colonial carve-up remain…