How the berlin conference hurt africa

image

It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.Nov 15, 2019

Full
Answer

What was the impact of the Berlin Conference on Africa?

Berlin Conference: Negative Impact on Africa. The spread of Christianity by the European missionaries also affected their society. In short, the European domination divided the Africans among themselves. Culturally, the Africans tried to adopt the system of democratic government pursued by the Europeans and ended in failure.

What was the result of the Berlin Conference of 1884?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 formalized the ongoing “Scramble for Africa.” Since the 1870s, European powers like France, Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom had been exploring and colonizing Africa, spurned by a need for raw resources to fire their increasingly industrial economies.

What are the legacies of the Berlin Conference?

The legacies of the Berlin Conference continue today as Africa remains largely poor and underdeveloped. The conference created territories that were drawn without respect to native cultures. This has led to disputed national boundaries in modern-day Africa and needless wars. The Berlin Conference essentially was the organized “Scramble for Africa.”

What countries were involved in the Berlin Conference?

Berlin Conference Tasks. Major colonial holdings included: Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded through their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and Botswana.

image


How did the Berlin Conference hurt Africa?

At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over 1,000 indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.


What happened at the Berlin Conference and how did it affect Africa?

The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal’s claims to the …


What did the 1914 Berlin Conference do about Africa?

One thing is clear—the Berlin Conference established the legal claim by Europeans that all of Africa could be occupied by whomever could take it. It also established a process for Europeans to cooperate rather than fight with each other.


What happened to Africa after the Berlin Conference?

The Scramble for Africa sped up after the Conference since even within areas designated as their sphere of influence, the European powers had to take effective possession by the principle of effectivity.


What impact did the Berlin Conference have on Africa quizlet?

Europeans set boundaries that combined peoples that were enemies. How did the Berlin Conference change Africa? It did so by dividing Africa without considering the wishes of native Africans or traditional tribal boundaries. The Berlin Conference is often cited as a root cause of Africa’s twentieth century violence.


What were the effects of the partition of Africa?

First of all, the partition of Africa laid the foundation for the Europeans to colonize the continent. After the partition of the continent among the various European countries trading in Africa, any territory where a European country had spheres of influence “legally” became a colony for that European country.


What were the long term effects of the Berlin Conference?

The colonial footprint legitimized by the Berlin Conference has left lasting consequences that continue to influence Africa’s future even today. On one hand, the rash manner in which the imperialists left Africa resulted in severe problems such as political instability and land degradation.


What caused the partition of Africa?

The search for new markets The surplus products needed to be sold but since their markets were already saturated, there was the need to push the extra goods into other markets. Another reason for the partitioning of Africa was therefore to look for markets where their excess goods could be sold.


What happened before the Berlin Conference?

Before the Berlin Conference, most of Africa was still in the hands of Africans. Europeans had only colonized coastal areas. However, this was changing. At the conference, the European countries divided up essentially all of Africa. They decided which European countries would get to own which parts of Africa. This doomed the African continent to decades of colonization by European powers.


Why did the Berlin Conference create spheres of influence?

The Berlin Conference carved up Africa into spheres of influence. Without asking the indigenous people, Europeans gathered together to see who would control which piece of the continent. While this was done in order to ensure that no country would fight another one over a territorial dispute in Africa, it…


What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 formally regulated European colonial efforts in the Scramble for Africa and basically overrode the autonomy and self-governance of African peoples. It divided up European ownership of territories on the continent and set up regulations for claiming territories that led to increased aggression in colonization.


How did the Berlin Conference of 1884-5 affect Africa?

The main way in which the Berlin Conference of 1884-5 affected Africa was by chopping it up into areas that would be colonized by various European countries. This had long-lasting effects on the continent.


How did colonization affect Africans?

The Europeans ran the colonial economies in ways that made money for the Europeans but did not enrich Africans and did not even train them to someday know how to do good jobs. The colonial governments did not allow Africans to participate. They did not really educate Africans. This meant that when independence came, there were very few Africans with the education or the experience needed to set up their own modern governments. These things helped make many African countries poor and chaotic after independence.


What were the negative effects of the Berlin Conference?

The negative impact of the Berlin Conference was the forced assimilation of ethnic groups that didn’t necessarily get along. These arbitrary boundaries did not take into consideration the tribal elements of Africa. Many of these ethnic groups simply did not have the familiarity with one another. Moreover, it also split up groups that have lived together for centuries.


How long is the free trial for eNotes?

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this answer and thousands more. Enjoy eNotes ad-free and cancel anytime.


What did the Europeans understand about Africa?

The Europeans understood that Africa was rich in natural resources and they exploited the resources.


What was the Berlin Conference?

Berlin Conference (1884-85) was held by the European nations to scramble Africa among themselves with the aid of diplomacy or by weapons. The conference had positive as well as negative effects. Africans had lost their lands. Almost 90% of the African continent came under the control of Europeans. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free.


Which imperialists were the most successful in Africa?

The British were the most successful imperialistic power in Africa. The imperialist policies of British created wars with the Africans. For example, Boers hated the British repressive policies and clashed with them. Zulus also clashed with British. In both wars, Britain won and the Africans were defeated.


What was the impact of European intervention on Africans?

The European intervention created rivalry and division among the Africans. Various issues confused the Africans and they longer stayed united. The division of African lands by the Europeans without considering the tribal, ethnic and cultural boundaries led to series of tribal conflicts and it is still continuing.


What were the richest minerals in Africa?

Some of the rich minerals were tin, copper, gold and diamonds. The Africans were in famine when the Europeans began to plant cash crops like peanuts, palm, cocoa and rubber. Large number of Africans died of European diseases.


What did European domination do to Africans?

In the social sphere, the European domination took the traditional African values and customs. They had also tarnished the existing social relationships, when they provided Africans with the education. Some of them valued it, while others refused to adopt the European culture.


What did the Berlin Conference do to Africans?

The Berlin Conference also demarcated boundaries that did not collaborate along ethnic and tribal lines.


How long is the free trial for eNotes?

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this answer and thousands more. Enjoy eNotes ad-free and cancel anytime.


What is a certified educator?

Our certified Educators are real professors, teachers, and scholars who use their academic expertise to tackle your toughest questions. Educators go through a rigorous application process, and every answer they submit is reviewed by our in-house editorial team.


Which countries have been exploring Africa?

Since the 1870s, European powers like France, Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom had been exploring and colonizing Africa, spurned by a need for raw resources to fire their increasingly industrial economies.


What were the factors that triggered the European involvement in Africa?

By the early 1880s many factors including diplomatic successes, greater European local knowledge, and the demand of resources such as gold, timber, and rubber, triggered dramatically increased European involvement in the continent of Africa. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps …


What conference was held in 1884 to divide Africa?

Geography.about.com – Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 to Divide Africa.


What was the hinterland theory?

This gave rise to ” hinterland theory”, which basically gave any colonial power with coastal territory the right to claim political influence over an indefinite amount of inland territory. Since Africa was irregularly shaped, that theory caused problems and was later rejected.


What is the principle of effective occupation?

The principle of effective occupation stated that powers could acquire rights over colonial lands only if they possessed them or had “effective occupation” : if they had treaties with local leaders, flew their flag there and established an administration in the territory to govern it with a police force to keep order. The colonial power could also make use of the colony economically. That principle became important not only as a basis for the European powers to acquire territorial sovereignty in Africa but also for determining the limits of their respective overseas possessions, as effective occupation served in some instances as a criterion for settling disputes over the boundaries between colonies. However, as the Berlin Act was limited in its scope to the lands that fronted on the African coast, European powers in numerous instances later claimed rights over lands in the interior without demonstrating the requirement of effective occupation, as articulated in Article 35 of the Final Act.


What was the race for colonialism?

The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference in 1884 to work out a joint policy on the African continent.


How did European diplomats approach governments in Africa?

Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into …


What was the Berlin conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference ( German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference ( Westafrika-Konferenz ), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany ‘s sudden emergence …


Why was the conference of Portugal proposed?

The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, was necessitated by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers viewed one another’s attempts at colonial expansion in Africa.


What was the Berlin West Africa Conference?

Berlin West Africa Conference, a series of negotiations (Nov. 15, 1884–Feb. 26, 1885) at Berlin, in which the major European nations met to decide all questions connected with the Congo River basin in Central Africa. The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, …


What was the German colony?

Specifically, Germany was able establish commercial enterprises in West and East Africa, Samoan Islands and north eastern regions of New Guinea. The country lost ostensible power in Africa immediately following their involvement in World War I.


What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference was organized to set basic standards about the colonization of Africa. Between 1885 and 1885, leaders from European countries agreed that the occupation of African territory should be based on efficient cooperation between world powers, and no single country could colonize the entire continent. In the following years, Europeans divided the entire continent, excluding the countries of Ethiopia and Libera. The continent was divided into spheres of influence by the following powers:


What did the British control in Africa?

The British controlled the most populated regions of the African continent with a strong emphasis on South Africa. This country was particularly important to the British, as it contained valuable resources such as gold and diamonds. British forces expelled existing Dutch settlers in the country, coming in to conflict with the Boers who lived there. In the 1830s, the Boers founded two republics slightly father north, coming in to conflict with native Zulus for control of the land.


What was the role of the British in the Zulu conflict?

The British occupation of South Africa set the tone for racial segregation of the country that existed until the 1990s.


What was the result of the colonization of Africa?

The colonization of Africa by Imperial European powers was the beginning of many social problems for those on the continent, but eventually led to the independence and autonomous rule of the nations whose borders were arbitrarily created.


Which country did Italy conquer?

Alongside Germany, Italy entered the scramble for Africa far later than Great Britain and France, subsequently only able to take control of Libya, Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. Their attempts to gain full control of Ethiopia was met with strong resistance, and the Italian army was defeated fairly quickly.


What did France use to fight for their country?

In addition to physical territory, France also used the resource of manpower to fight for their country during the first World War. During this period, leaders of the colonial movement in French Africa were key players in making decisions about the next steps of the French Empire, notably the French invasion of Cameroon.


What was the most infamous colonial holding in Africa?

The most infamous colonial holding in Africa is, probably, the Congo Free State in Central Africa. Ironically, the Congo Free State was the private property KingLeopold II of Belgium; it was not a colonial territory, but one very large tract of land given to Leopold on the grounds that he would not tax trade there.


How many people died in the Congo during Leopold’s rule?

The full scope of Leopold’s death toll is hard to account for, but his administration’s economic exploitation and relentless violence caused the deaths of roughly 10 million African people.


What countries were involved in the Berlin Conference?

The participating countries included: Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway, and the United States of America.


Why did the colonists of Europe and America meet in Berlin in 1884?

In 1884, representatives of all the colonial powers of Europe and America met in Berlin to discuss how they would divide Africa between them. The colonization of Africa had begun, and the newly formed Germany under GermanChancellorOtto von Bismarck was attempting to create their own overseas empire. This led to a great deal of concern about war …


Which African country was not colonized by a European country?

By the 1930s, Ethiopia would remain the only African nation not colonized by a European country.


Which country was divided at the Conference?

Although all of Africa was divided at the Conference, the final map didn’t look exactly as they planned. Ethiopia, under Emperor Menelik II, remained independent. When Italy attempted to conquer the country in 1895, the Ethiopians dealt them a resounding defeat at the Battle of Adwa.


Which country tried to challenge French control in West Africa, especially in Morocco?

British troops seized control of the Ottoman territory of Egypt, which they would later declare their protectorate. Germany tried to challenge French control in West Africa, especially in Morocco.

image


Overview

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz, pronounced [ˌvɛstˈʔaːfʁika ˌkɔnfeˈʁɛnt͡s]), regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first c…


Background

Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into the interior markets of Africa. European spheres of p…


Conference

The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe …


General Act

The General Act fixed the following points:
• Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members. In his novella Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad sarcastically referred to one of the participants at the conference, the International Association o…


Agenda

• Portugal–Britain: The Portuguese government presented a project, known as the “Pink Map”, or the “Rose-Coloured Map”, in which the colonies of Angola and Mozambique were united by co-option of the intervening territory (the land later became Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi). All of the countries attending the conference, except for Britain, endorsed Portugal’s ambitions, and just over five years later, in 1890, the British government issued an ultimatum that demanded for the …


Aftermath

The conference provided an opportunity to channel latent European hostilities towards one another outward; provide new areas for helping the European powers expand in the face of rising American, Russian and Japanese interests; and form constructive dialogue to limit future hostilities. In Africa, colonialism was introduced across nearly all the continent. When African independence w…


Analysis by historians

Historians have long marked the Berlin Conference as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa but recently, scholars have questioned the legal and economic impact of the conference.
Some have argued the conference central to imperialism. African-American historian W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1948 that alongside the Atlantic slave trade in Africans a great world movement of modern times is “the partitioning of Africa after the Franco-Prussian War which, with the Berlin C…


See also

• Brussels Conference Act of 1890
• Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation

Leave a Comment