How the berlin conference lead up to african independence

image

The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 formally regulated European colonial efforts in the Scramble for Africa and basically overrode the autonomy and self-governance of African peoples. It divided up European ownership of territories on the continent and set up regulations for claiming territories that led to increased aggression in colonization.

Full
Answer

What was the result of the Berlin Conference in Africa?

“The Berlin Conference was Africa’s undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily.”

What was decided at the Berlin Conference of 1884?

During the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, the major European powers met in Berlin to decide the fate of European claims to Africa. The European powers had been involved in the so-called Scramble for Africa, and they wanted to best each other in claiming territories in the region and extracting Africa’s natural resources.

Was the Berlin Conference the start of colonialism?

The Berlin Conference gathered a bunch of Europeans to plot ways to divide up Africa. It may not have been the “start” of colonialism, but it sure accelerated the process. Created by World History Project. The Berlin Conference gathered a bunch of Europeans to plot ways to divide up Africa.

How long did the Berlin Conference take?

The Berlin Conference took about three and a half months, from November 15, 1884 to February 26, 1885. It resulted in an act that did three things. The first was to recognize the territory that King Leopold claimed as his private property. The second was to recognize some existing territorial claims in different parts of Africa.

image


What impact did the Berlin Conference have on independent African nations?

It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.


What was the Berlin Conference and what impact did it have on Africa?

Otto von Bismarck created the Berlin Conference to settle disputes between the European powers with interests in Africa to create pseudo borders of ownership, allowing various European nations to claim almost the entire continent, including its resources and people.


How did Africa change after the Berlin Conference?

At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over 1,000 indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.


How did the Berlin Conference contribute to the Colonisation of Africa?

The conference contributed to ushering in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.


What happened as a result of the Berlin Conference?

The first was to recognize the territory that King Leopold claimed as his private property. The second was to recognize some existing territorial claims in different parts of Africa. The third, and most important, result of the conference was to set up a way for Europeans to claim and annex territory in Africa.


What were the result of Berlin Conference?

The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal’s claims to the …


What impact did the Berlin Conference have on Africa quizlet?

Europeans set boundaries that combined peoples that were enemies. How did the Berlin Conference change Africa? It did so by dividing Africa without considering the wishes of native Africans or traditional tribal boundaries. The Berlin Conference is often cited as a root cause of Africa’s twentieth century violence.


What are two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?

Note two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885. Agreement amongst 14 nations to divide Africa and the goal to change Africans (Assimilation).


How did the Berlin Conference cause conflict and hardship throughout Africa?

How did the Berlin Conference cause conflict and hardship throughout Africa? The conference ignored existing boundaries when creating colonies, leading to territorial disputes after decolonization.


What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the ؖ rst chancellor of Germany. The purpose of the Berlin Conference was to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa by identifying which European nations would be allowed to control which parts of Africa.


What happened as a result of the Berlin Conference?

As a result, almost the entire continent of Africa was colonized and under the rule of European powers, leading to the deaths of many and the explo…


What were the 3 main reasons for the colonization of Africa?

The geographical positioning of many African cities was valuable across the millennia, allowing the colonizing powers to monopolize and exploit the…


What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?

Otto von Bismarck created the Berlin Conference to settle disputes between the European powers with interests in Africa to create pseudo borders of…


When was Africa first colonized?

Carthage in modern-day Tunisia was the first colonized city in Africa, colonized by the Phoenicians in 884 B.C.E. Colonization in Africa was quite…


What was the first name of the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa?

The first name of this Society had been the “ International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa “. The properties occupied by Belgian King Leopold’s International Congo Society, the name used in the General Act, were confirmed as the Society’s and hence Leopold’s private property.


What was Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin?

Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps of the continent, delineating the areas of British, Portuguese, French and Belgian control. These European nations raced to annex territory that might be claimed by rivals.


What were the factors that triggered the European involvement in Africa?

By the early 1880s many factors including diplomatic successes, greater European local knowledge, and the demand of resources such as gold, timber, and rubber, triggered dramatically increased European involvement in the continent of Africa. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps …


What was the race for colonialism?

The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference in 1884 to work out a joint policy on the African continent.


How did European diplomats approach governments in Africa?

Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into …


What was the Berlin conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference ( German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference ( Westafrika-Konferenz ), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany ‘s sudden emergence …


Which country took over Tunisia?

France moved to take over Tunisia, one of the last of the Barbary states, using a claim of another piracy incident. French claims by Pierre de Brazza were quickly acted on by the French military which took control of what is now the Republic of the Congo in 1881 and Guinea in 1884.


What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 formally regulated European colonial efforts in the Scramble for Africa and basically overrode the autonomy and self-governance of African peoples. It divided up European ownership of territories on the continent and set up regulations for claiming territories that led to increased aggression in colonization.


Why do Cameroon and South Africa speak French?

Countries such as Cameroon speak French largely due to being in the French sphere of influence while South Africa speaks English because Britain controlled that area. Aside from language and customs, the Berlin Conference was largely negative for Africa.


What was Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin?

Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–77) removed the last bit of terra incognita from European maps of the continent, there by delineating the rough areas of British, Portuguese, French, and Belgian control.


What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference. The Berlin Conference can be best understood as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa. This British coined the term sometime in 1884, and it has since been used to describe the twenty-plus years when the various European powers explored, divided, conquered and began to exploit virtually the entire African continent.


Why did France move to occupy Tunisia?

France moved to occupy Tunisia, one of the last of the Barbary Pirate states, under the pretext of another Islamic terror and piracy incident.


Why was Africa ignored?

This changed as a result of King Leopold of Belgium’s desire for personal glory and riches and b y the mid-19th century, Africa was considered ripe for exploration, trade, and settlement.


How long did the Berlin Conference last?

The Berlin Conference spanned almost four months of deliberations, from 15 November 1884 to 26 February 1885. By the end of the Conference the European powers had neatly divided Africa up amongst themselves, drawing the boundaries of Africa much as we know them today.


How did European diplomacy treat African indigenous people?

Prior to the conference, European diplomacy treated African indigenous people in the same manner as they treated New World natives, forming trade realtions with tribal chiefs. This can seen in examples such as the Portuguese trading with the Kingdom of the Kongo.


When did the Scramble for Africa begin?

European powers were slow to realise the benefits of claiming land in Africa and had mainly kept to coastal colonies. However in 1884–5 the Scramble for Africa had truly began in earnest when thirteen European countries and the United States met in Berlin to agree to the rules dividing Africa.


The Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference gathered a bunch of Europeans to plot ways to divide up Africa. It may not have been the “start” of colonialism, but it sure accelerated the process.


The Conference

The Berlin Conference took about three and a half months, from November 15, 1884 to February 26, 1885. It resulted in an act that did three things. The first was to recognize the territory that King Leopold claimed as his private property. The second was to recognize some existing territorial claims in different parts of Africa.


Menelik in the middle

One African leader who figured this out early was Menelik II, future Emperor of Ethiopia. In 1884, Menelik was not yet emperor but was an important leader of this state. He knew about the conference, although neither he nor any other African leader had been invited.


Continuity and change

How important was the Berlin Conference? To what degree did it lead to change, including the colonization of Africa? Historians and legal scholars who study this question don’t all agree on an answer. Look at the two maps below and you can see different ways to answer the question.


What is the bane of African politics?

Ethnicity and tribalism continue to be the bane of African politics. “The Berlin Conference was Africa’s undoing in more ways than one,” wrote Jan Nijman, Peter Muller and Harm de Blij in their book, Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts. “The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent.


What was the principle of effective occupation?

The principle of “effective occupation” was to become the catalyst for military conquest of the African continent with far-reaching consequences for its inhabitants. At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. The Europeans only had influence on the coast.


What was Africa like before colonialism?

Before colonialism Africa was characterised by pluralism, flexibility, multiple identity; after it, African identities of ‘tribe’, gender and generation were all bounded by the rigidities of invented tradition.”.


What did the Europeans do to the coast?

The Europeans only had influence on the coast. Following it, they started grabbing chunks of land inland, ultimately creating a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that was superimposed over indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.


Where was the horseshoe table?

Sat around a horseshoe-shaped table in a room overlooking the garden with representatives from every European country, apart from Switzerland, as well as those from the United States and the Ottoman Empire.


Where was the chancellor of the German Empire’s official residence?

On the afternoon of Saturday, November 15, 1884, an international conference was opened by the chancellor of the newly-created German Empire at his official residence on Wilhelmstrasse, in Berlin. Sat around a horseshoe-shaped table in a room overlooking …


Can Africans turn back the clock?

While it is impossible to turn back the clock, Africans would do well to reflect on what has happened since. Teaching the real history of the subjugation of the continent would help counter the myths of “ancient hatreds” that are said to fuel the conflicts on the continent.


What was the German colony?

Specifically, Germany was able establish commercial enterprises in West and East Africa, Samoan Islands and north eastern regions of New Guinea. The country lost ostensible power in Africa immediately following their involvement in World War I.


What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference was organized to set basic standards about the colonization of Africa. Between 1885 and 1885, leaders from European countries agreed that the occupation of African territory should be based on efficient cooperation between world powers, and no single country could colonize the entire continent. In the following years, Europeans divided the entire continent, excluding the countries of Ethiopia and Libera. The continent was divided into spheres of influence by the following powers:


What did the British control in Africa?

The British controlled the most populated regions of the African continent with a strong emphasis on South Africa. This country was particularly important to the British, as it contained valuable resources such as gold and diamonds. British forces expelled existing Dutch settlers in the country, coming in to conflict with the Boers who lived there. In the 1830s, the Boers founded two republics slightly father north, coming in to conflict with native Zulus for control of the land.


Which country claimed the largest colonial empire in Africa?

France claimed the largest colonial Empire in Africa, which covered over 3.5 million square miles. This territory included the entirety of the Sahara Desert. Their control of Algeria in North Africa in 1830 was followed by colonization of Morocco, Tunisia, West Africa and equatorial Africa. At the height of their power, France’s control of Africa was equal in territory to that of the United States.


What is the 2063 vision of the AU?

The 2063 vision of the AU is highly commendable, but the AU has failed in many respects to live up to its role on the continent. Africa is dire need of change, it has to move at a fast pace in solving its pressing political, economic and social issues otherwise it risks falling into the same trap of continued exploitation. To quote Abdoulaye Wade, Senegal’s former president, “In comparing our country to some of those in Asia that were at the same level as we at independence in 1960, we notice that they have gone much faster than we have. We must reflect on this to understand why. The struggle for liberation is therefore not finished. It presents itself today in economic terms and will be won on the development front…. Together, we must clearly understand that prolonged economic dependence will ultimately erode our political independence.”


What countries colonized Africa in 1900?

Seven European nations had colonised Africa by 1900; France, Germany, Britain, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and Italy. All of them came to Africa for her resources. The cycle unfortunately continues today with China …


What is the African Continental Free Trade Area?

The African Continental Free Trade Area breaks off chains of separations, and encourages an increase in trade between African countries. While it the journey of building will take a while, it must be done and maintained. Africa should look more into itself, finding its own solutions and learning from the world.


What was Africa’s purpose?

Africa, as an European apparatus, was built to have only one function, to be milked of its resources, and to continually serve the empires of Britain, Spain, Belgium and other European nations.


How long has the Berlin Conference changed Africa?

It’s 134 years since the conference that changed the whole continent. The solution to the problems Africa faces, which stem from the Berlin Conference, is in the hands of Africans. Without the participation of a single African representative, European nations came together under the Berlin Conference in 1884 and divided Africa between themselves.


Why was Africa built as an European apparatus?

Africa, as an European apparatus, was built to have only one function, to be milked of its resources,


Who was the first president of Ghana?

Kwame Nkrumah (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was the first President of Ghana, the first Prime Minister of Ghana, and an influential 20th-century advocate of Pan-Africanism. The struggle for independence and the effects of colonialism could be felt in the speeches many African heads of state gave.

image


Overview

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz, pronounced [ˌvɛstˈʔaːfʁika ˌkɔnfeˈʁɛnt͡s]), regulated European colonisation and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first c…


Background

Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into the interior markets of Africa. European spheres of p…


Conference

The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe …


General Act

The General Act fixed the following points:
• Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members. In his novella Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad sarcastically referred to one of the participants at the conference, the International Association o…


Agenda

• Portugal–Britain: The Portuguese government presented a project, known as the “Pink Map”, or the “Rose-Coloured Map”, in which the colonies of Angola and Mozambique were united by co-option of the intervening territory (the land later became Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi). All of the countries attending the conference, except for Britain, endorsed Portugal’s ambitions, and just over five years later, in 1890, the British government issued an ultimatum that demanded for the …


Aftermath

The conference provided an opportunity to channel latent European hostilities towards one another outward; provide new areas for helping the European powers expand in the face of rising American, Russian and Japanese interests; and form constructive dialogue to limit future hostilities. In Africa, colonialism was introduced across nearly all the continent. When African independence w…


Analysis by historians

Historians have long marked the Berlin Conference as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa but recently, scholars have questioned the legal and economic impact of the conference.
Some have argued the conference central to imperialism. African-American historian W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1948 that alongside the Atlantic slave trade in Africans a great world movement of modern times is “the partitioning of Africa after the Franco-Prussian War which, with the Berlin C…


See also

• Brussels Conference Act of 1890
• Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation

Leave a Comment