What is the berlin conference



What is the Berlin Conference and why is it important?

The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 was held to ease tensions in Europe over colonial claims in Africa. The conference opened the door for the full-scale colonization of Africa by European countries. A major issue between European countries, the navigation of the Niger and Congo Rivers, was resolved by the meeting.

What was the Berlin Conference and what was its purpose?

What was the Berlin conference and what was its purpose? The Berlin conference took place in 1884-1885 and was also known as the Congo conference and the West Africa conference. The purpose was to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period.

What are the causes and effects of Berlin Conference?

Berlin Conference (1884-85) was held by the European nations to scramble Africa among themselves with the aid of diplomacy or by weapons. The conference had positive as well as negative effects. Africans had lost their lands. Almost 90% of the African continent came under the control of Europeans. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained free.

What is a true statement of the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first chancellor of Germany. Its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa, but some scholars of history warn against …


What was the Berlin Conference in simple terms?

The Berlin Conference (or “Congo Conference”) of 1884–85 made rules for European colonization and trade in Africa. It was called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck. The conference met during the Scramble for Africa, a time with more colonial activity by European powers. Africans were not invited.

What is the Berlin Conference and why is it important?

The Berlin Conference, also known as the Congo Conference, was a summit held in 1884 and 1885. It was called by the German Empire to resolve the matter of African colonization by European powers.

What was the Berlin Conference and what was its result?

Known as The Berlin Conference, they sought to discuss the partitioning of Africa, establishing rules to amicably divide resources among the Western countries at the expense of the African people. Of these fourteen nations at the Berlin Conference, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players.

What happened at the Berlin Conference?

Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members.

Was the Berlin Conference successful?

The Berlin Conference did not initiate European colonization of Africa, but it did legitimate and formalize the process. In addition, it sparked new interest in Africa.

What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1884 quizlet?

what was the purpose of Berlin Conference (1884-1885)? Purpose was to set rules for establishing colonies in Africa among European nations.

What were the goals of the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the ؖ rst chancellor of Germany. The purpose of the Berlin Conference was to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa by identifying which European nations would be allowed to control which parts of Africa.

What was one major outcome of the Berlin Conference?

The outcome was that there would be free trade and free navigation of the Niger River, but it effectively divided up Africa among the European powers….

Why was the Berlin Conference held in Germany?

In 1884, the Berlin Conference was convened to discuss African colonization, with the aim of setting up international guidelines for making claims to African land to avoid conflict between European powers.

How did the Berlin Conference divide Africa?

At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over 1,000 indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.

What impact did the Berlin Conference have on Africa?

It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.

Why did the Berlin Conference fail at its mission?

The new powers had no experience, and many had no idea how to properly govern, so they learned from trial and error. As a result, the new leaders made grievous mistakes that put Africa in debt, causing poverty and starvation that has remained until today.

The General Act

  • The General Act signed on 26 February 1885 indicates the main preoccupation of the conference. The first article of the act stipulated that freedom of commerce was to prevail in a defined area centering on the Congo basin. The provisions were far-reaching, protecting all traders, regardless of nationality, from all taxes except those necessary to m…

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Dual Character of The General Act

  • Unsurprisingly, the official proceedings and the General Act offer only a partial idea of the issues at stake at the conference. While publicly proclaiming the virtues of peaceful competition through free trade, Bismarck was also intent on asserting Germany’s international prominence and ambitions and on combining with various other European powers to negate the strength of Grea…

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  • Although scholarly debate continues as to whether the conference itself partitioned Africa, it appears evident that at the very least it led to the further partition of the continent. The “failure” of the conference could be explained at a number of different levels. Too many difficult questions were evaded in the deliberations, and the idea of creating a free trade area in the Congo contradi…

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  • A close study of the conference suggests it was doomed to fail. But this is far from saying that it had no consequences. The consequences were felt most tragically by the peoples of Africa, for the partitions that followed it established many African boundaries. These were the products of negotiations between European states rather than a result of any understanding of the peoples t…

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  • Primary Sources
    General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa, Feb. 26 1885, translated in Official Documents. American Journal of International Law3 (1909): 7.
  • Secondary Sources
    Anghie, Antony. Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law.Cambridge, U.K., 2005. Conrad, Joseph. The Heart of Darkness.Edinburgh, 1902. Crowe, Sybil Eyre. The Berlin West African Conference, 1884–1885.Westport, Conn., 1942; reprinted 1970. Förster, Stig, Wolfgang J…

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