What was the Berlin Conference and what was its purpose?
What was the Berlin conference and what was its purpose? The Berlin conference took place in 1884-1885 and was also known as the Congo conference and the West Africa conference. The purpose was to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period.
What was the main objective of the Berlin Conference?
The main objective of the Berlin Conference (1884-85) was to codify and legalize the European colonization of Africa. For a number of years, the European powers had been involved in what became…
What were the long term effects of the Berlin Conference?
The long-run effects of the Scramble for Africa
- Identifying partitioned ethnicities. Quantifying the effects of the Scramble for Africa requires identifying the partitioned groups. …
- The violent repercussions of the random border design. …
- Spillovers. …
- Conclusion. …
- References. …
Why was it important to the Allies to divide Berlin?
The final agreements at Potsdam concerned:
- The decentralization, demilitarization, denazification and democratization of Germany
- The division of Germany and Berlin, and Austria and Vienna into the four occupations zones outlined at Yalta
- Prosecution of Nazi war criminals
- Return of all Nazi annexations to their pre-war borders
What was the significance of the Berlin Conference quizlet?
The significance of the Berlin Conference was to attain colonial prestige in Africa. The Europeans met at the Berlin Conference and carved up the African continent and of noteworthy, no Africans were invited to the conference.
What are the main impacts of the Berlin Conference?
It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.
What are two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885?
Note two outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885. Agreement amongst 14 nations to divide Africa and the goal to change Africans (Assimilation).
What was the Berlin conference?
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference ( German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference ( Westafrika-Konferenz ), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany ‘s sudden emergence …
How did European diplomats approach governments in Africa?
Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into …
What were the factors that triggered the European involvement in Africa?
By the early 1880s many factors including diplomatic successes, greater European local knowledge, and the demand of resources such as gold, timber, and rubber, triggered dramatically increased European involvement in the continent of Africa. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps …
Who was the chancellor of Germany in 1884?
Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference in 1884 to work out a joint policy on the African continent.
What was the first name of the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa?
The first name of this Society had been the “ International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa “. The properties occupied by Belgian King Leopold’s International Congo Society, the name used in the General Act, were confirmed as the Society’s and hence Leopold’s private property.
What is the significance of the Berlin Conference?
The Berlin Conference is remembered in sharply contrasting terms: in Europe it is seen as a failed enterprise and largely a matter of historical interest, in Africa, the consequences of the conference have an enduring and tragic significance that has been the subject of ongoing debate and scholarship.
Why was the Berlin Conference organized?
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 was organized by the chancellor Otto von Bismarck of Germany to address a number of diplomatic and political problems arising from this European expansion into Africa.
What was the main preoccupation of the conference?
the general act. The General Act signed on 26 February 1885 indicates the main preoccupation of the conference. The first article of the act stipulated that freedom of commerce was to prevail in a defined area centering on the Congo basin.
What was the Berlin Conference?
BERLIN CONFERENCE. The “Scramble for Africa” had commenced in earnest by the latter half of the nineteenth century, intensifying competition between European states and commercial interests intent on staking their claims to Africa. The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 was organized by the chancellor Otto von Bismarck of Germany to address a number …
What was the purpose of the Act of 1812?
The act was designed, in the words of the preamble, to further the development of “commerce and of civilization in certain regions of Africa,” and it was by this means that “the moral and material well being of the indigenous populations” was to be improved.
What countries were present at the Berlin Conference?
Also present at the conference were a number of secondary European powers, such as Denmark, Spain, and Italy, as well as the United States and the Ottoman Empire. While the Berlin Conference had an enduring and profound impact on the peoples of Africa, no African societies were represented at the conference.
Why were missionaries required to protect missionary societies?
Toward this end, they were required to protect those missionary societies and philanthropic institutions that were created to “instruct the natives and to make them understand and appreciate the advantages of civilization.”. Freedom of worship and conscience were guaranteed.
What was the Berlin Conference? What were its effects on African history?
early 19th century. Although the Berlin Conference may have played a role in ethnic conflicts, these conflicts are part of African history and has not been unique to the Africa since colonialism with several ethnic conflicts taken place before the war. The social implications of colonialism appear to have played a negative, but influential role in contemporary Africa. Colonialism still affects Africa today as shown by the borders still in place from the Berlin Conference but it is important not to overstress
What countries were involved in the Berlin Conference?
14 countries attended, including Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway, Turkey, and the United States of America. The main countries involved were France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal. Even though the conference was about dividing up Africa, not a single representative from any part of Africa attended. The Berlin Conference lasted for three months, ending February 26, 1885.
Why was the Berlin Wall built?
Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall was built in August 1961 during the Cold War. The Wall that separated East and West Berlin came to show the different ideologies between different systems of government, Communism and Democratic supported by the USSR and the USA. The Berlin Wall symbolised the difference between the western democrats and eastern communist and the way they though Germany should be led. The significance of the wall What was the cold war and diplomatic relationships? The Cold War was a
What was the Berlin Wall? What was its significance?
The Berlin wall was often referred to as a symbol of the cold war and the inner conflict of Germany. It showed the different ideologies of the USA and USSR and their systems of government. Officially known as the “Anti-Fascist-Protective Wall” by the east, and the “Wall of Shame” by the West, it physically divided the city of Berlin from August
What was the Cold War?
Nuclear warfare, or the “Arms Race”, was also crucial in understanding the constant “one-upmanship” rivalry between the states. The term “cold war” first appeared in a 1945 essay by the English writer George Orwell called “You and the Atomic Bomb.” . Showing that the Berlin blockade was not the point at which
Which country controlled Berlin?
divided and occupied Germany. Also divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located far inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany. The United States, United Kingdom, and France controlled western portions of the city, while Soviet troops controlled the eastern sector. As the wartime alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union ended and friendly relations turned hostile, the question of whether the western occupation zones in Berlin would remain under Western Allied control or whether the city
What did the Europeans see in the Scramble for Africa?
The Europeans arrived to Africa with a sense of entitlement to the land, thus forming the Berlin Conference to divide and colonize Africa. This is the event that Yinka Shonibare depicts in his piece The Scramble for Africa. Through this work, Shonibare expertly combines the historical event with artistic elements that mix both traditional African
What was the Berlin West Africa Conference?
Berlin West Africa Conference, a series of negotiations (Nov. 15, 1884–Feb. 26, 1885) at Berlin, in which the major European nations met to decide all questions connected with the Congo River basin in Central Africa. The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, …
Why was the conference of Portugal proposed?
The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, was necessitated by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers viewed one another’s attempts at colonial expansion in Africa.
The ‘Plan B’
Purpose of The Berlin Conference
During the colonial expansion, there were territorial claims of the colonists that overlapped. To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence of the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in the year…
Summary of The Berlin Conference
The conference commenced from 15thNovember, 1984. The colonists would be given charge of their colonies, only if they were in a position to maintain their hold over it. No European nation would have any restrictions for trade in the African continent and the same was to hold true for the coastline of Africa. No extra tax was to be imposed on goods that were imported or exporte…
Significance of The Berlin Conference, 1884-85
The African continent was randomly divided in about fifty countries. These did not take into factor any geographical factors or ethnicity. This forced apart people coming from a same background and belief system, whereas, in some cases, it compelled people from different school of thoughts to stick together. Repercussions of this partition can be felt in modern Africa even today as thes…
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz, pronounced [ˌvɛstˈʔaːfʁika ˌkɔnfeˈʁɛnt͡s]), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first c…
The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe a…
The General Act fixed the following points:
• Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members. In his novella Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad sarcastically referred to one of the participants at the conference, the International Association o…
• Portugal–Britain: The Portuguese government presented a project, known as the “Pink Map”, or the “Rose-Coloured Map”, in which the colonies of Angola and Mozambique were united by co-option of the intervening territory (the land later became Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi). All of the countries attending the conference, except for Britain, endorsed Portugal’s ambitions, and just over five years later, in 1890, the British government issued an ultimatum that demanded for the …
Analysis by historians
Historians have long marked the Berlin Conference as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa but recently, scholars have questioned the legal and economic impact of the conference.
Some have argued the conference central to imperialism. African-American historian W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1948 that alongside the Atlantic slave trade in Africans a great world movement of modern times is “the partitioning of Africa after the Franco-Prussian War which, with the Berlin C…
• Brussels Conference Act of 1890
• Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation
The General Act
The General Act signed on 26 February 1885 indicates the main preoccupation of the conference. The first article of the act stipulated that freedom of commerce was to prevail in a defined area centering on the Congo basin. The provisions were far-reaching, protecting all traders, regardless of nationality, from all taxes except those necessary to m…
Dual Character of The General Act
Unsurprisingly, the official proceedings and the General Act offer only a partial idea of the issues at stake at the conference. While publicly proclaiming the virtues of peaceful competition through free trade, Bismarck was also intent on asserting Germany’s international prominence and ambitions and on combining with various other European powers to negate the strength of Grea…
Although scholarly debate continues as to whether the conference itself partitioned Africa, it appears evident that at the very least it led to the further partition of the continent. The “failure” of the conference could be explained at a number of different levels. Too many difficult questions were evaded in the deliberations, and the idea of creating a free trade area in the Congo contradi…
A close study of the conference suggests it was doomed to fail. But this is far from saying that it had no consequences. The consequences were felt most tragically by the peoples of Africa, for the partitions that followed it established many African boundaries. These were the products of negotiations between European states rather than a result of any understanding of the peoples t…
- Primary Sources
General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa, Feb. 26 1885, translated in Official Documents. American Journal of International Law3 (1909): 7.
- Secondary Sources
Anghie, Antony. Imperialism, Sovereignty and the Making of International Law.Cambridge, U.K., 2005. Conrad, Joseph. The Heart of Darkness.Edinburgh, 1902. Crowe, Sybil Eyre. The Berlin West African Conference, 1884–1885.Westport, Conn., 1942; reprinted 1970. Förster, Stig, Wolfgang J…