Answer from: veronica25681 The three conditions of the Berlin Conference of 1884–85 were Most lakes and waterways were considered neutral. The Congo would stay in Belgian hands.
What was the result of the Berlin Conference of 1884?
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz, pronounced) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz, pronounced), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power.
What was the impact of the Berlin Conference on Africa?
The conference contributed to ushering in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference(1884-1885)?
what was the purpose of Berlin Conference (1884-1885)? Purpose was to set rules for establishing colonies in Africa among European nations. No African representatives were there. withing three decades almost the entire continent of Africa was colonized by Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Belgium and?
What was the Bismark Conference of 1884?
In 1884, at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa.
What were three conditions of the Berlin Conference of 1884 85?
What were three conditions of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85? Slave trade was allowed. Most lakes and waterways were considered neutral. Africa would be divided among European nations and America.
What are 3 agreements that came out of the Berlin Conference?
The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the Congo River basin to be neutral (a fact that in no way deterred the Allies from extending the war into that area in World War I); guaranteed freedom for trade and shipping for all states in the basin; forbade slave trading; and rejected Portugal’s claims to the …
What were the three aims of the 1885 Berlin Conference?
Known as The Berlin Conference, they sought to discuss the partitioning of Africa, establishing rules to amicably divide resources among the Western countries at the expense of the African people. Of these fourteen nations at the Berlin Conference, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players.
What did the Berlin Conference of 1884 85 determine?
Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members.
What were terms of the Berlin Conference?
Any power laid claim on an area in African had no notified the other so as to avoid conflict. The European powers were to ensure that security of all Europeans within their areas of occupation was guaranteed.
What happened as a result of the Berlin Conference of 1884 to 1885 quizlet?
What happened as a result of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885? Europeans divided Africa into colonies without consulting African leaders.
What were the reasons for the Berlin Conference?
The immediate reason for the Berlin Conference was the jealousy of the king of a small country, Belgium, towards his cousin, Queen Victoria of Great Britain. King Leopold II of Belgium considered himself to be an important man. Yet in the 1870s, Leopold had no territory other than the small state of Belgium itself.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference of 1884 quizlet?
what was the purpose of Berlin Conference (1884-1885)? Purpose was to set rules for establishing colonies in Africa among European nations.
What led to the Berlin Conference of 1884?
Purpose of the Berlin Conference In 1884, at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa.
Which two of these items were requirements that the Berlin Conference imposed on European nations claiming colonies in Africa?
1) Regions were to be defined within the African land and the Europeans given a legal access to the land. 2) In the event of taking new powers along the African coast one had to notify the signatories already existing.
What were the effects of the Berlin Conference?
It partitioned/divided Africa among European nations. It led to the suffering of Africans as they were abused by colonial masters with many crushed to death after resisting colonialism e.g. in 1880’s-1890’s France began an aggressive colonization policy in West Africa.
What did the Treaty of Berlin promise?
The treaty formally recognized the independence of the de facto sovereign principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and the autonomy of Bulgaria although the latter de facto functioned independently and was divided into three parts: the Principality of Bulgaria, the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia, and …
What are the effects of the Berlin Conference?
It established the rules for the conquest and partition of Africa, in the process legitimising the ideas of Africa as a playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans.
What did Russia gain from the Berlin Conference?
Romania became fully independent, though was forced to give part of Bessarabia to Russia, and gained Northern Dobruja. Serbia and Montenegro were also granted full independence but lost territory, with Austria-Hungary occupying the Sandžak region along with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?
During the colonial expansion, there were territorial claims of the colonists that overlapped. To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence …
What countries attended the Berlin Conference?
This conference, known as the Berlin Conference, was attended by the diplomats of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Belgium, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the United States of America. Of all the nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, …
What was Otto von Bismarck’s plan?
Otto von Bismarck would come up with a backup plan, in case his original plans did not work out. Such a backup plan was known as ‘The Bismarck Plan’ and which later became famous as the ‘Plan B’. During the 19 th century, Africa was being seen as a source of untapped natural resources by the colonial powers of Europe.
What was the outcome of the Congo conference?
As an outcome of this conference, Congo would not only become a Belgian colony, it would come under the private domain of the Belgian King. It was also decided upon to maintain the neutrality of the African continent in case of a war.
What are the repercussions of the African partition?
This has resulted into infusion of violence and turmoil in the African continent.
Which African countries were freed at the end of the 20th century?
By the end of the 19 th century, all of Africa had come under European occupation, except for Ethiopia and Liberia. Ethiopia was successful in evading Italian invasion and Liberia that was formed by freed American slaves, were the only African nations that were free at the turn of the 20 th century.
Which country was under the control of the Belgian king?
The Democratic Republic of Congo, that was under the domain of the Belgian king, saw nearly half of its population perishing under the King’s rule. The European powers had failed to maintain the neutral status of Africa and it had been a theater to quite a few wars during the two World Wars.
What was the Berlin conference?
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference ( German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference ( Westafrika-Konferenz ), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany ‘s sudden emergence …
What conference was held in 1884 to divide Africa?
Geography.about.com – Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 to Divide Africa.
What were the factors that triggered the European involvement in Africa?
By the early 1880s many factors including diplomatic successes, greater European local knowledge, and the demand of resources such as gold, timber, and rubber, triggered dramatically increased European involvement in the continent of Africa. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps …
What was the hinterland theory?
This gave rise to ” hinterland theory”, which basically gave any colonial power with coastal territory the right to claim political influence over an indefinite amount of inland territory. Since Africa was irregularly shaped, that theory caused problems and was later rejected.
What was the race for colonialism?
The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe as well as the United States to take part in the Berlin Conference in 1884 to work out a joint policy on the African continent.
How did European diplomats approach governments in Africa?
Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into …
Where is the first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to “spheres of influence”?
The first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to ” spheres of influence ” is contained in the Berlin Act.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?
In 1884, at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany’s sphere of influence over Africa and hoped to force Germany’s …
How many countries were represented at the Berlin Conference?
Countries Represented at the Berlin Conference. Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, …
What happened to the African continent in 1950?
The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily.”.
Which countries did the British control?
Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded through their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan ), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa , and Zambia, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and Botswana . The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast).
Who was the king of Belgium during the Berlin Conference?
Despite its neutrality, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgium’s King Leopold II. Under his rule, over half of the region’s population died. At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference, the European colonial powers scrambled …
Which country took much of Western Africa?
France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa), as well as Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa).
The ‘Plan B’
Purpose of The Berlin Conference
During the colonial expansion, there were territorial claims of the colonists that overlapped. To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence of the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in the year 1884-85. This conference, known as th…
Summary of The Berlin Conference
The conference commenced from 15thNovember, 1984. The colonists would be given charge of their colonies, only if they were in a position to maintain their hold over it. No European nation would have any restrictions for trade in the African continent and the same was to hold true for the coastline of Africa. No extra tax was to be imposed on goods …
Significance of The Berlin Conference, 1884-85
The African continent was randomly divided in about fifty countries. These did not take into factor any geographical factors or ethnicity. This forced apart people coming from a same background and belief system, whereas, in some cases, it compelled people from different school of thoughts to stick together. Repercussions of this partition can be felt in modern Africa even today as thes…
The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz, pronounced [ˌvɛstˈʔaːfʁika ˌkɔnfeˈʁɛnt͡s]), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first c…
The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe a…
The General Act fixed the following points:
• Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members. In his novella Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad sarcastically referred to one of the participants at the conference, the International Association o…
• Portugal–Britain: The Portuguese government presented a project, known as the “Pink Map”, or the “Rose-Coloured Map”, in which the colonies of Angola and Mozambique were united by co-option of the intervening territory (the land later became Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi). All of the countries attending the conference, except for Britain, endorsed Portugal’s ambitions, and just over five years later, in 1890, the British government issued an ultimatum that demanded for the …
Analysis by historians
Historians have long marked the Berlin Conference as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa but recently, scholars have questioned the legal and economic impact of the conference.
Some have argued the conference central to imperialism. African-American historian W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1948 that alongside the Atlantic slave trade in Africans a great world movement of modern times is “the partitioning of Africa after the Franco-Prussian War which, with the Berlin C…
• Brussels Conference Act of 1890
• Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation