Why did european leaders hold the berlin conference

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Why did European leaders hold the Berlin Conference? To prevent European nations from going to war over Africa.

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Answer

Why did the Berlin Conference occur?

The Berlin Conference occurred primarily due to Germany’s entry into the colonial sphere. Previously, Britain, France, Belgium, Spain and Portugal had largely occupied the continent without conflict, but Germany’s rise to power made the other European leaders nervous and eager to establish ground rules.

What were the rules created by the Berlin Conference?

Among the rules created by the Berlin Conference were the establishment of a free trade zone in the Congo, the requirement that a country had to occupy and administer its colonies instead of simply claiming land in absentia and the requirement that a country must notify the other signatories before establishing…

What was the significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85?

A Summary and Significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. Here is a look at the significance of the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. This conference was organized by the first Chancellor of unified Germany, Otto von Bismarck.

Which countries attended the Berlin Conference?

This conference, known as the Berlin Conference, was attended by the diplomats of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Belgium, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the United States of America.

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Why did the Europeans hold the Berlin Conference?

The immediate reason for the Berlin Conference was the jealousy of the king of a small country, Belgium, towards his cousin, Queen Victoria of Great Britain. King Leopold II of Belgium considered himself to be an important man. Yet in the 1870s, Leopold had no territory other than the small state of Belgium itself.


What was the purpose and result of the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the ؖ�rst chancellor of Germany. The purpose of the Berlin Conference was to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa by identifying which European nations would be allowed to control which parts of Africa.


What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference quizlet?

Why was the Berlin Conference held? The Berlin Conference was intended to reduce the conflict between European Nations and discard the slave trade, but ultimately divided up Africa to the European Nations.


What was the main goal of European countries when they divided Africa?

The main goal of European countries when they divided Africa was to gain profit from the riches of Africa, and not to benefit for the Africans.


What was the Berlin conference?

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference ( German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference ( Westafrika-Konferenz ), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany ‘s sudden emergence …


Which country reserves the right to decline or accept the conclusions of the conference?

Uniquely, the United States reserved the right to decline or to accept the conclusions of the conference.


What were the factors that triggered the European involvement in Africa?

By the early 1880s many factors including diplomatic successes, greater European local knowledge, and the demand of resources such as gold, timber, and rubber, triggered dramatically increased European involvement in the continent of Africa. Stanley’s charting of the Congo River Basin (1874–1877) removed the last terra incognita from European maps …


What conference was held in 1884 to divide Africa?

Geography.about.com – Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 to Divide Africa.


What was the hinterland theory?

This gave rise to ” hinterland theory”, which basically gave any colonial power with coastal territory the right to claim political influence over an indefinite amount of inland territory. Since Africa was irregularly shaped, that theory caused problems and was later rejected.


How did European diplomats approach governments in Africa?

Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into …


Where is the first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to “spheres of influence”?

The first reference in an international act to the obligations attaching to ” spheres of influence ” is contained in the Berlin Act.


What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?

During the colonial expansion, there were territorial claims of the colonists that overlapped. To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence …


What countries attended the Berlin Conference?

This conference, known as the Berlin Conference, was attended by the diplomats of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Belgium, Denmark, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the United States of America. Of all the nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, …


What was Otto von Bismarck’s plan?

Otto von Bismarck would come up with a backup plan, in case his original plans did not work out. Such a backup plan was known as ‘The Bismarck Plan’ and which later became famous as the ‘Plan B’. During the 19 th century, Africa was being seen as a source of untapped natural resources by the colonial powers of Europe.


What was the outcome of the Congo conference?

As an outcome of this conference, Congo would not only become a Belgian colony, it would come under the private domain of the Belgian King. It was also decided upon to maintain the neutrality of the African continent in case of a war.


What are the repercussions of the African partition?

This has resulted into infusion of violence and turmoil in the African continent.


Which African countries were freed at the end of the 20th century?

By the end of the 19 th century, all of Africa had come under European occupation, except for Ethiopia and Liberia. Ethiopia was successful in evading Italian invasion and Liberia that was formed by freed American slaves, were the only African nations that were free at the turn of the 20 th century.


When did Europe stop the slave trade?

Europe had made contact with Africa in the 15 th century and yet their focus was mainly on the slave trade that was finally banned in 1807 by Great Britain. This ban, however, did not deter others from continuing with slave trade. Till the 1870s, hardly any part of Africa had been under colonial occupation. After the respective unification of …


Why did the Berlin Conference happen?

The Berlin Conference occurred primarily due to Germany’s entry into the colonial sphere. Previously, Britain, France, Belgium, Spain and Portugal had largely occupied the continent without conflict, but Germany’s rise to power made the other European leaders nervous and eager to establish ground rules.


What was the Berlin Conference?

The Berlin Conference was a series of meetings held in 1884 and 1885 with the goal of dividing the continent of Africa between the European powers.

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Overview

The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, also known as the Congo Conference or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz, pronounced [ˌvɛstˈʔaːfʁika ˌkɔnfeˈʁɛnt͡s]), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany’s sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first c…


Background

Prior to the conference, European diplomats approached governments in Africa in the same manner as they did in the Western Hemisphere by establishing a connection to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, the European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the production of luxury goods, led many European merchants into the interior markets of Africa. European spheres of p…


Conference

The European race for colonialism made Germany start launching expeditions of its own, which frightened both British and French statesmen. Hoping to quickly soothe the brewing conflict, Belgian King Leopold II convinced France and Germany that common trade in Africa was in the best interests of all three countries. Under support from the British and the initiative of Portugal, Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Germany, called on representatives of 13 nations in Europe a…


General Act

The General Act fixed the following points:
• Partly to gain public acceptance, the conference resolved to end slavery by African and Islamic powers. Thus, an international prohibition of the slave trade throughout their respected spheres was signed by the European members. In his novella Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad sarcastically referred to one of the participants at the conference, the International Association o…


Agenda

• Portugal–Britain: The Portuguese government presented a project, known as the “Pink Map”, or the “Rose-Coloured Map”, in which the colonies of Angola and Mozambique were united by co-option of the intervening territory (the land later became Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi). All of the countries attending the conference, except for Britain, endorsed Portugal’s ambitions, and just over five years later, in 1890, the British government issued an ultimatum that demanded for the …


Aftermath

The conference provided an opportunity to channel latent European hostilities towards one another outward; provide new areas for helping the European powers expand in the face of rising American, Russian and Japanese interests; and form constructive dialogue to limit future hostilities. In Africa, colonialism was introduced across nearly all the continent. When African independence w…


Analysis by historians

Historians have long marked the Berlin Conference as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa but recently, scholars have questioned the legal and economic impact of the conference.
Some have argued the conference central to imperialism. African-American historian W. E. B. Du Bois wrote in 1948 that alongside the Atlantic slave trade in Africans a great world movement of modern times is “the partitioning of Africa after the Franco-Prussian War which, with the Berlin C…


See also

• Brussels Conference Act of 1890
• Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation


The ‘Plan B’

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Otto von Bismarck would come up with a backup plan, in case his original plans did not work out. Such a backup plan was known as ‘The Bismarck Plan’ and which later became famous as the ‘Plan B’. During the 19th century, Africa was being seen as a source of untapped natural resources by the colonial powers of Europe. Euro…

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Purpose of The Berlin Conference

  • During the colonial expansion, there were territorial claims of the colonists that overlapped. To resolve these claims and to establish control over the trade in African continent, a conference was called by Portugal and it was arranged by Germany. This conference was held at Berlin residence of the German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in the year…

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Summary of The Berlin Conference

  • The conference commenced from 15thNovember, 1984. The colonists would be given charge of their colonies, only if they were in a position to maintain their hold over it. No European nation would have any restrictions for trade in the African continent and the same was to hold true for the coastline of Africa. No extra tax was to be imposed on goods that were imported or exporte…

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Significance of The Berlin Conference, 1884-85

  • The African continent was randomly divided in about fifty countries. These did not take into factor any geographical factors or ethnicity. This forced apart people coming from a same background and belief system, whereas, in some cases, it compelled people from different school of thoughts to stick together. Repercussions of this partition can be felt in modern Africa even today as thes…

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